Chronic hepatitis B infection is a very important health problem in China, which is carrying an enormous economic and social burdens. The major routs of chronic hepatitis B infection in China are mother-infant vertical transmission and early childhood horizontal transmission. After more than 10 years implementation of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in newborns and safety injection in health care settings, the prevalence of HBsAg in general population has decreased from 9.75% to around 7%. In China, patients with hepatitis are cared by either hepatologists or physicians of infectious diseases. The Chinese Society of Hepatology, and Chinese Society of Infectious Diseases jointly issued an evidence-based guideline on the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B in 2005. This guideline concisely describes the virology, epidemiology, natural history and prevention, as well as diagnosis and management of chronic hepatitis B. It also highlights the importance of active viral replication in disease progression in chronic HBV infection and explicitly states the necessity of antiviral therapy in patient care. The cornerstone of anti-hepatitis B therapy is optimal use of interferons or nucleos(t)ide analogs in those patients with active viral replication and elevated serum transaminase levels. Through an independent continue medical educational agency, a panel of selected speakers were trained to give well-formatted talks on the key points of the guideline in over 60 major cities across China. This educational campaign among health care providers has greatly improved the awareness and the stand of care for antiviral therapy.