White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a unique member within the virus family Nimaviridae, is the most notorious aquatic virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans and has caused enormous economic losses in the shrimp farming industry worldwide. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of WSSV morphogenesis, structural proteins, and replication is essential for developing prevention measures of this serious parasite. The viral genome is approximately 300kb and contains more than 180 open reading frames (ORF). However, most of proteins encoded by these ORF have not been characterized. Due to the importance of WSSV structural proteins in the composition of the virion structure, infection process and interaction with host cells, knowledge of structural proteins is essential to understanding WSSV entry and infection as well as for exploring effective prevention measures. This review article summarizes mainly current investigations on WSSV structural proteins including the relative quantities, localization, function and protein-protein interactions. Traditional proteomic studies of 1D or 2D gel electrophoresis separations and mass spectrometry (MS) followed by database searches have identified a total of 39 structural proteins. Shotgun proteomics and iTRAQ were initiated to identify more structural proteins. To date, it is estimated that WSSV is assembled by at least 59 structural proteins, among them 35 are defined as the envelope fraction (including tegument proteins) and 9 as nucleocapsid proteins. Furthermore, the interaction within several major structural proteins has also been investigated. This identitification and characterization of WSSV protein components should help in the understanding of the viral assembly process and elucidate the roles of several major structural proteins.