In this study, a standard strain of HSV-1 (strain SM44) was used to investigate the antiviral activity of the recombinant Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro and in vivo. Cytopathic effect (CPE) and MTT assays were used to evaluate the effect of CV-N on HSV-1 in Vero cells. The number of copies of HSV-DNA was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR). The results showed that CV-N had a low cytotoxicity on Vero cells with a CC50 of 359.03±0.56 µg/mL, and that it could not directly inactivate HSV-1 infectivity. CV-N not only reduced the CPE of HSV-1 when added before or after viral infection, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) with 2.26 and 30.16µg/mL respectively, but it also decreased the copies of HSV-1 DNA in infected host cells. The encephalitis model for HSV-1 infection was conducted in Kunming mice, and treated with three dosages of CV-N ( 0.5, 5 & 10 mg/kg) which was administered intraperitoneally at 2h, 3d, 5d, 7d post infection. The duration for the appearance of symptoms of encephalitis and the survival days were recorded and brain tissue samples were obtained for pathological examination (HE staining). Compared with the untreated control group, in the 5mg/kg CV-N and 10mg/kg CV-N treated groups, the mice suffered light symptoms and the number of survival days were more than 9d and 14d respectively. HE staining also showed that in 5mg/kg CV-N and 10mg/kg CV-N treated groups, the brain cells did not show visible changes, except for a slight inflammation. Our results demonstrated that CV-N has pronounced antiviral activity against HSV-1 both in vitro and in vivo, and it would be a promising new candidate for anti-HSV therapeutics.