For subunit vaccines, adjuvants play a key role in shaping the magnitude, persistence and form of targeted antigen-specific immune response. Flagellin is a potent immune activator by bridging innate inflammatory responses and adaptive immunity and an adjuvant candidate for clinical application. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are efficient carriers for different biomolecules like DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. Flagellin-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles were prepared and their immunostimulatory effect on the innate immune system, i.e. the cytokine production, was studied. They induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 (Caco-2 cells) and IL-1β (bone marrow-derived macrophages; BMDM) in vitro and IL-6 in vivo after intraperitoneal injection in mice. The immunostimulation was more pronounced than with free flagellin.