Rotavirus diarrhea is a major worldwide cause of infantile gastroenteritis; however, the mechanism responsible for intestinal fluid loss remains unclear. Water transfer across the intestinal epithelial membrane seems to occur because of aquaporins (AQPs). Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in AQPs may play an important role in pathogenesis. Here, we focus on changes in AQPs in a mouse model of rotavirus diarrhea. In the present study, 32 of 35 mice developed diarrhea and mild dehydration within 24 hours after infection with rotavirus strain SA11. Intestinal epithelial cells demonstrated cytoplasmic vacuolation, malaligned villi, and atrophy. AQP1 expression was significantly attenuated in the ileum and colon in comparison with controls; likewise, AQP4 and-8 protein expression were significantly decreased in the colon of rotavirus diarrhea-infected mice. In contrast, AQP3 protein expression was significantly increased in the colon of rotavirus-infected mice in comparison with controls. These results indicate that rotavirus diarrhea is associated with the downregulation of AQP1,-4, and-8 expression. Therefore, AQPs play an important role in rotavirus diarrhea.