It has now been over twenty years since a novel herpesviral genome was identified in Kaposi’s
sarcoma biopsies. Since then, the cumulative research effort by molecular biologists, virologists,
clinicians, and epidemiologists alike has led to the extensive characterization of this tumor virus,
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-
8)), and its associated diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of KSHV biology and
pathogenesis, with a particular emphasis on new and exciting advances in the field of epigenetics.
We also discuss the development and practicality of various cell culture and animal model systems
to study KSHV replication and pathogenesis.