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Research Article
Feasible and effective cell models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are required for investigating the complete lifecycle of this virus, including the early steps of viral entry. Resistance to dimethyl sulfoxide/polyethylene glycol (DMSO/PEG), hNTCP expression, and a differentiated state are ..., Abstract
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Review
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos in tropical and subtropical regions across the world. After decades of sporadic outbreaks, it re-emerged in Africa, Asia, India Ocean and America suddenly, causing major regional epidemics recently and becoming a notable ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the infectious etiologic agent associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. It has been shown that high KSHV prevalence and high incidence of both classic KS and AIDSassociated KS are ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. ORF7 is an important virulence determinant of VZV in both human skin and nerve tissues, however, its specific function and involved molecular mechanism in VZV pathogenesis remain largely elusive. ..., Abstract
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Review
Activation of specific sets of protein kinases by intracellular signal molecules has become more and more apparent in the past decade. Phosphorylation, one of key posttranslational modification events, is activated by kinase or regulatory protein and is vital for controlling many ..., Abstract
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Review
Herpesviruses are remarkable pathogens that have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade host immunity, ensuring their proliferation and egress. Among these mechanisms, herpesviruses utilize elaborate extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, for the intricate interplay between infected host and ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Rabies remains a public health threat that kills approximately 59,000 people worldwide each year, most of which are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia where dog rabies are endemic. Therefore,developing an affordable and efficacious vaccine is crucial for rabies control in these ..., Abstract
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Review
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that ubiquitously establishes life-long persistence in humans.To ensure its survival and maintain its B cell transformation function,EBV has developed powerful strategies to evade host immune responses.Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare and severe progressive epileptic syndrome with unknown etiology.Infection by viruses,including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV),has been speculated to be a potential trigger for RE.However,no viral antigens have been detected in the brains of patients with ..., Abstract
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Research Article
This is the first country-wide surveillance of bat-borne viruses in Kenya spanning from 2012-2015 covering sites perceived to have medium to high level bat-human interaction.The objective of this surveillance study was to apply a non-invasive approach using fresh feces to detect viruses circulating ..., Abstract
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Research Article
Hubei Province is a major epidemic area of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus (SFTSV) in China. However, to date, a few SFTSV strains have been isolated from Hubei Province, preventing effective studies of epidemic outbreaks. Here, we report three confirmed patients (2015-2016) ..., Abstract
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Review
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTSV is associated with a high mortality rate and has been reported in China, South Korea and Japan. SFTSV undergoes rapid changes owing to evolution, gene mutations, and reassortment ..., Abstract
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Review
Hantaviruses are comprised of tri-segmented negative sense single-stranded RNA, and are members of the Bunyaviridae family. Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are important zoonotic pathogens that can have severe adverse effects in humans. They are naturally maintained in specific ..., Abstract
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Review
Dengue virus (DENV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae and it is primarily transmitted via Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The life cycle of DENV includes attachment, endocytosis, protein translation, RNA synthesis, assembly ..., Abstract
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Review
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. There are 4 serotypes of DENV that cause human disease through transmission by mosquito vectors. DENV infection results in a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from mild fever to dengue hemorrhagic ..., Abstract
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Review
Ebolaviruses are highly dangerous pathogens exhibiting extreme virulence in humans and nonhuman primates. The majority of ebolavirus species, most notably Zaire ebolavirus, can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, in humans. EVD is associated with ..., Abstract
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Letter
Bacteriophages are viruses that attack bacteria and kill them through the lytic replication cycle. Many studies have reported that phages are more specific to bacteria than antibiotics are; thus, phage therapy has many potential applications in human medicine, with the advantage of having few ..., Abstract
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Research Article
A novel Clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 reassortant virus caused several outbreaks in wild birds in some regions of China from late 2014 to 2015. Based on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses, the viruses possess a stable gene constellation with a Clade 2.3.2.1c HA, a H9N2-derived PB2 gene and the other ..., Abstract
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Research Article
The papain-like protease (PLpro) of Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has proteolytic, deubiquitinating, and deISGylating activities. The latter two are involved in the suppression of the antiviral innate immune response of the host cell. To contribute to an ..., Abstract
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Review
Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different ..., Abstract
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