Citation: Pei Yu, Zijian Liu, Zhuoqi Zhu, Jiaqing Yang, Min Deng, Mingxiao Chen, Changchun Lai, Weiya Kong, Shilong Xiong, Li Wan, Weikang Mai, Lu Chen, Yu Lei, Shahzad Akbar Khan, Jianfeng Ruan, An Kang, Xuguang Guo, Qiang Zhou, Wenrui Li, Zheng Chen, Yuemei Liang, Pingchao Li, Lei Zhang, Tianxing Ji. Omicron variants breakthrough infection elicited higher specific memory immunity than third dose booster in healthy vaccinees .VIROLOGICA SINICA, 2023, 38(2) : 233-243.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virs.2022.12.008

Omicron variants breakthrough infection elicited higher specific memory immunity than third dose booster in healthy vaccinees

  • Homologous booster, heterologous booster, and Omicron variants breakthrough infection (OBI) could improve the humoral immunity against Omicron variants. Questions concerning about memory B cells (MBCs) and T cells immunity against Omicron variants, features of long-term immunity, after booster and OBI, needs to be explored. Here, comparative analysis demonstrate antibody and T cell immunity against ancestral strain, Delta and Omicron variants in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (OBIPs) are comparable to that in Ad5-nCoV boosted healthy volunteers (HVs), higher than that in inactivated vaccine (InV) boosted HVs. However, memory B cells (MBCs) immunity against Omicron variants was highest in OBIPs, followed by Ad5-nCoV boosted and InV boosted HVs. OBIPs and Ad5-nCoV boosted HVs have higher classical MBCs and activated MBCs, and lower naïve MBCs and atypical MBCs relative to both vaccine boosted HVs. Collectively, these data indicate Omicron breakthrough infection elicit higher MBCs and T cells against SARS-CoV-2 especially Omicron variants relative to homologous InV booster and heterologous Ad5-nCoV booster.

  • 加载中
    1. Anderson EM, Li SH, Awofolaju M, Eilola T, Goodwin E, Bolton MJ, Gouma S, Manzoni TB, Hicks P, Goel RR, Painter MM, Apostolidis SA, Mathew D, Dunbar D, Fiore D, Brock A, Weaver J, Millar JS, DerOhannessian S, Unit UPCP, Greenplate AR, Frank I, Rader DJ, Wherry EJ, Bates P, Hensley SE. 2022. SARS-CoV-2 infections elicit higher levels of original antigenic sin antibodies compared with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations. Cell Rep. 41, 111496.

    2. Assawakosri S, Kanokudom S, Suntronwong N, Auphimai C, Nilyanimit P, Vichaiwattana P, Thongmee T, Duangchinda T, Chantima W, Pakchotanon P, Srimuan D, Thatsanatorn T, Klinfueng S, Yorsang R, Sudhinaraset N, Wanlapakorn N, Mongkolsapaya J, Honsawek S, Poovorawan Y. 2022. Neutralizing activities against the omicron variant after a heterologous booster in healthy adults receiving two doses of coronavac vaccination. J Infect Dis. 17, 1372-1381.

    3. Chakraborty S, Gonzalez J, Edwards K, Mallajosyula V, Buzzanco AS, Sherwood R, Buffone C, Kathale N, Providenza S, Xie MM, Andrews JR, Blish CA, Singh U, Dugan H, Wilson PC, Pham TD, Boyd SD, Nadeau KC, Pinsky BA, Zhang S, Memoli MJ, Taubenberger JK, Morales T, Schapiro JM, Tan GS, Jagannathan P, Wang TT. 2021. Proinflammatory igg fc structures in patients with severe COVID-19. Nat Immunol, 22:67-73.

    4. Channappanavar R, Perlman S. 2020. Age-related susceptibility to coronavirus infections:Role of impaired and dysregulated host immunity. J Clin Invest, 130:6204-6213.

    5. Choi SJ, Kim DU, Noh JY, Kim S, Park SH, Jeong HW, Shin EC. 2022. T cell epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 proteins are substantially conserved in the omicron variant. Cell Mol Immunol, 19:447-448.

    6. Costa Clemens SA, Weckx L, Clemens R, Almeida Mendes AV, Ramos Souza A, Silveira MBV, da Guarda SNF, de Nobrega MM, de Moraes Pinto MI, Gonzalez IGS, Salvador N, Franco MM, de Avila Mendonca RN, Queiroz Oliveira IS, de Freitas Souza BS, Fraga M, Aley P, Bibi S, Cantrell L, Dejnirattisai W, Liu X, Mongkolsapaya J, Supasa P, Screaton GR, Lambe T, Voysey M, Pollard AJ, team RHHs. 2022. Heterologous versus homologous COVID-19 booster vaccination in previous recipients of two doses of coronavac COVID-19 vaccine in Brazil (RHH-001):A phase 4, non-inferiority, single blind, randomised study. Lancet, 399:521-529.

    7. Dauby N, Kummert C, Lecomte S, Liesnard C, Delforge ML, Donner C, Marchant A. 2014. Primary human cytomegalovirus infection induces the expansion of virus-specific activated and atypical memory B cells. J Infect Dis, 210:1275-1285.

    8. Farkash I, Feferman T, Cohen-Saban N, Avraham Y, Morgenstern D, Mayuni G, Barth N, Lustig Y, Miller L, Shouval DS, Biber A, Kirgner I, Levin Y, Dahan R. 2021. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies elicited by COVID-19 mRNA vaccine exhibit a unique glycosylation pattern. Cell Rep, 37:110114.

    9. Faro-Viana J, Bergman ML, Goncalves LA, Duarte N, Coutinho TP, Borges PC, Diwo C, Castro R, Matoso P, Malheiro V, Brennand A, Kosack L, Akpogheneta O, Figueira JM, Cardoso C, Casaca AM, Alves PM, Nunes T, Penha-Goncalves C, Demengeot J. 2022. Population homogeneity for the antibody response to COVID-19 BNT162b2/comirnaty vaccine is only reached after the second dose across all adult age ranges. Nat Commun, 13:140.

    10. GeurtsvanKessel CH, Geers D, Schmitz KS, Mykytyn AZ, Lamers MM, Bogers S, Scherbeijn S, Gommers L, Sablerolles RSG, Nieuwkoop NN, Rijsbergen LC, van Dijk LLA, de Wilde J, Alblas K, Breugem TI, Rijnders BJA, de Jager H, Weiskopf D, van der Kuy PHM, Sette A, Koopmans MPG, Grifoni A, Haagmans BL, de Vries RD. 2022. Divergent SARS-CoV-2 Omicron-reactive T and B cell responses in COVID-19 vaccine recipients. Sci Immunol, 7:eabo2202.

    11. Goel RR, Painter MM, Lundgreen KA, Apostolidis SA, Baxter AE, Giles JR, Mathew D, Pattekar A, Reynaldi A, Khoury DS, Gouma S, Hicks P, Dysinger S, Hicks A, Sharma H, Herring S, Korte S, Kc W, Oldridge DA, Erickson RI, Weirick ME, McAllister CM, Awofolaju M, Tanenbaum N, Dougherty J, Long S, D'Andrea K, Hamilton JT, McLaughlin M, Williams JC, Adamski S, Kuthuru O, Drapeau EM, Davenport MP, Hensley SE, Bates P, Greenplate AR, Wherry EJ. 2022. Efficient recall of omicron-reactive B cell memory after a third dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Cell, 185:1875-1887 e1878.

    12. Hopp CS, Skinner J, Anzick SL, Tipton CM, Peterson ME, Li S, Doumbo S, Kayentao K, Ongoiba A, Martens C, Traore B, Crompton PD. 2022. Atypical B cells up-regulate costimulatory molecules during malaria and secrete antibodies with t follicular helper cell support. Sci Immunol, 7:eabn1250.

    13. Jahnmatz M, Kesa G, Netterlid E, Buisman AM, Thorstensson R, Ahlborg N. 2013. Optimization of a human igg b-cell elispot assay for the analysis of vaccine-induced B-cell responses. J Immunol Methods, 391:50-59.

    14. Jung MK, Jeong SD, Noh JY, Kim DU, Jung S, Song JY, Jeong HW, Park SH, Shin EC. 2022. BNT162b2-induced memory T cells respond to the omicron variant with preserved polyfunctionality. Nat Microbiol, 7:909-917.

    15. Kared H, Wolf AS, Alirezaylavasani A, Ravussin A, Solum G, Tran TT, Lund-Johansen F, Vaage JT, Nissen-Meyer LS, Nygaard UC, Hungnes O, Robertson AH, Naess LM, Trogstad L, Magnus P, Munthe LA, Mjaaland S. 2022. Immune responses in Omicron SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection in vaccinated adults. Nat Commun, 13:4165.

    16. Kedzierska K, Thomas PG. 2022. Count on us:T cells in SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. Cell Rep Med, 3:100562.

    17. Khan K, Karim F, Cele S, Reedoy K, San JE, Lustig G, Tegally H, Rosenberg Y, Bernstein M, Jule Z, Ganga Y, Ngcobo N, Mazibuko M, Mthabela N, Mhlane Z, Mbatha N, Miya Y, Giandhari J, Ramphal Y, Naidoo T, Sivro A, Samsunder N, Kharsany ABM, Amoako D, Bhiman JN, Manickchund N, Abdool Karim Q, Magula N, Abdool Karim SS, Gray G, Hanekom W, von Gottberg A, Team C-K, Milo R, Gosnell BI, Lessells RJ, Moore PL, de Oliveira T, Moosa MS, Sigal A. 2022. Omicron infection enhances delta antibody immunity in vaccinated persons. Nature, 607:356-359.

    18. Kong W, Zhong Q, Chen M, Yu P, Xu R, Zhang L, Lai C, Deng M, Zhou Q, Xiong S, Liang Y, Wan L, Lin M, Wang M, Mai W, Chen L, Lei Y, Qin N, Zhu J, Ruan J, Huang Q, Kang A, Wang J, Li W, Ji T. 2022. Ad5-ncov booster and omicron variant breakthrough infection following two doses of inactivated vaccine elicit comparable antibody levels against omicron variants. J Med Virol. doi:10.1002/jmv.28163.

    19. Koutsakos M, Lee WS, Reynaldi A, Tan HX, Gare G, Kinsella P, Liew KC, Taiaroa G, Williamson DA, Kent HE, Stadler E, Cromer D, Khoury DS, Wheatley AK, Juno JA, Davenport MP, Kent SJ. 2022. The magnitude and timing of recalled immunity after breakthrough infection is shaped by SARS-CoV-2 variants. Immunity. 55, 1316-1326.e4.

    20. Li J, Hou L, Guo X, Jin P, Wu S, Zhu J, Pan H, Wang X, Song Z, Wan J, Cui L, Li J, Chen Y, Wang X, Jin L, Liu J, Shi F, Xu X, Zhu T, Chen W, Zhu F. 2022. Heterologous Ad5-nCoV plus coronavac versus homologous coronavac vaccination:A randomized phase 4 trial. Nat Med, 28:401-409.

    21. Luo H, Jia T, Chen J, Zeng S, Qiu Z, Wu S, Li X, Lei Y, Wang X, Wu W, Zhang R, Zou X, Feng T, Ding R, Zhang Y, Chen YQ, Sun C, Wang T, Fang S, Shu Y. 2021. The characterization of disease severity associated IgG subclasses response in COVID-19 patients. Front Immunol, 12:632814.

    22. Melo-Gonzalez F, Soto JA, Gonzalez LA, Fernandez J, Duarte LF, Schultz BM, Galvez NMS, Pacheco GA, Rios M, Vazquez Y, Rivera-Perez D, Moreno-Tapia D, Iturriaga C, Vallejos OP, Berrios-Rojas RV, Hoppe-Elsholz G, Urzua M, Bruneau N, Fasce RA, Mora J, Grifoni A, Sette A, Weiskopf D, Zeng G, Meng W, Gonzalez-Aramundiz JV, Gonzalez PA, Abarca K, Ramirez E, Kalergis AM, Bueno SM. 2021. Recognition of variants of concern by antibodies and t cells induced by a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. Front Immunol, 12:747830.

    23. Mok CKP, Cohen CA, Cheng SMS, Chen C, Kwok KO, Yiu K, Chan TO, Bull M, Ling KC, Dai Z, Ng SS, Lui GC, Wu C, Amarasinghe GK, Leung DW, Wong SYS, Valkenburg SA, Peiris M, Hui DS. 2022. Comparison of the immunogenicity of BNT162b2 and coronavac COVID-19 vaccines in Hong Kong. Respirology, 27:301-310.

    24. Moroney JB, Vasudev A, Pertsemlidis A, Zan H, Casali P. 2020. Integrative transcriptome and chromatin landscape analysis reveals distinct epigenetic regulations in human memory B cells. Nat Commun, 11:5435.

    25. Muecksch F, Wang Z, Cho A, Gaebler C, Ben Tanfous T, DaSilva J, Bednarski E, Ramos V, Zong S, Johnson B, Raspe R, Schaefer-Babajew D, Shimeliovich I, Daga M, Yao KH, Schmidt F, Millard KG, Turroja M, Jankovic M, Oliveira TY, Gazumyan A, Caskey M, Hatziioannou T, Bieniasz PD, Nussenzweig MC. 2022. Increased memory B cell potency and breadth after a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA boost. Nature. 607, 128-134.

    26. Oliviero B, Varchetta S, Mele D, Mantovani S, Cerino A, Perotti CG, Ludovisi S, Mondelli MU. 2020. Expansion of atypical memory B cells is a prominent feature of covid-19. Cell Mol Immunol, 17:1101-1103.

    27. Pape KA, Dileepan T, Kabage AJ, Kozysa D, Batres R, Evert C, Matson M, Lopez S, Krueger PD, Graiziger C, Vaughn BP, Shmidt E, Rhein J, Schacker TW, Khoruts A, Jenkins MK. 2021. High-affinity memory B cells induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection produce more plasmablasts and atypical memory B cells than those primed by mRNA vaccines. Cell Rep, 37:109823.

    28. Perez-Perez GI, Maw AM, Feingold-Link L, Gunn J, Bowers AL, Minano C, Rautelin H, Kosunen TU, Blaser MJ. 2010. Longitudinal analysis of serological responses of adults to helicobacter pylori antigens. J Infect Dis, 202:916-923.

    29. Pinna D, Corti D, Jarrossay D, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. 2009. Clonal dissection of the human memory B-cell repertoire following infection and vaccination. Eur J Immunol, 39:1260-1270.

    30. Quandt J, Muik A, Salisch N, Lui BG, Lutz S, Kruger K, Wallisch AK, Adams-Quack P, Bacher M, Finlayson A, Ozhelvaci O, Vogler I, Grikscheit K, Hoehl S, Goetsch U, Ciesek S, Tureci O, Sahin U. 2022. Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection drives cross-variant neutralization and memory B cell formation against conserved epitopes. Sci Immunol:eabq2427.

    31. Sakharkar M, Rappazzo CG, Wieland-Alter WF, Hsieh CL, Wrapp D, Esterman ES, Kaku CI, Wec AZ, Geoghegan JC, McLellan JS, Connor RI, Wright PF, Walker LM. 2021. Prolonged evolution of the human B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sci Immunol. 6, eabg6916.

    32. Sette A, Crotty S. 2021. Adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Cell, 184:861-880.

    33. Sokal A, Barba-Spaeth G, Fernandez I, Broketa M, Azzaoui I, de La Selle A, Vandenberghe A, Fourati S, Roeser A, Meola A, Bouvier-Alias M, Crickx E, Languille L, Michel M, Godeau B, Gallien S, Melica G, Nguyen Y, Zarrouk V, Canoui-Poitrine F, Pirenne F, Megret J, Pawlotsky JM, Fillatreau S, Bruhns P, Rey FA, Weill JC, Reynaud CA, Chappert P, Mahevas M. 2021. mRNA vaccination of naive and COVID-19-recovered individuals elicits potent memory B cells that recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants. Immunity, 54:2893-2907 e2895.

    34. Sutton HJ, Aye R, Idris AH, Vistein R, Nduati E, Kai O, Mwacharo J, Li X, Gao X, Andrews TD, Koutsakos M, Nguyen THO, Nekrasov M, Milburn P, Eltahla A, Berry AA, Kc N, Chakravarty S, Sim BKL, Wheatley AK, Kent SJ, Hoffman SL, Lyke KE, Bejon P, Luciani F, Kedzierska K, Seder RA, Ndungu FM, Cockburn IA. 2021. Atypical B cells are part of an alternative lineage of B cells that participates in responses to vaccination and infection in humans. Cell Rep, 34:108684.

    35. Toapanta-Yanchapaxi L, Chiquete E, Avila-Rojo E, Lopez-Yanez S, Luna Del Villar Velasco S, Rivera Monroy S, Lopez Gomez T, Andres Aguilar JB, Balcazar Antonio DF, Alcaraz-Fuerte C, Garcia Baysa M, Lopez Jimenez JL, Marquez-Guillen E, Vilatoba M, Cruz-Martinez R, Carpinteyro-Espin P, Chavez-Villa M, Romero Morelos RD, Torres-Del Real D, Uscanga-Dominguez LF, Garcia-Alanis M, Tapia Sosa R, Servin-Rojas M, Valdez-Echeverria RD, Garcia-Juarez I. 2022. Humoral response to different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Vaccine, 40:5621-5630.

    36. Tregoning JS, Flight KE, Higham SL, Wang Z, Pierce BF. 2021. Progress of the covid-19 vaccine effort:Viruses, vaccines and variants versus efficacy, effectiveness and escape. Nat Rev Immunol, 21:626-636.

    37. Tseng HF, Ackerson BK, Luo Y, Sy LS, Talarico CA, Tian Y, Bruxvoort KJ, Tubert JE, Florea A, Ku JH, Lee GS, Choi SK, Takhar HS, Aragones M, Qian L. 2022. Effectiveness of mRNA-1273 against SARS-CoV-2 omicron and delta variants. Nat Med. 28, 1063-1071.

    38. van Zelm MC. 2022. Immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 omicron ba.1 breakthrough infections:To change the vaccine or not? Sci Immunol, 7:eabq5901.

    39. Wang CY, Hwang KP, Kuo HK, Peng WJ, Shen YH, Kuo BS, Huang JH, Liu H, Ho YH, Lin F, Ding S, Liu Z, Wu HT, Huang CT, Lee YJ, Liu MC, Yang YC, Lu PL, Tsai HC, Lee CH, Shi ZY, Liu CE, Liao CH, Chang FY, Chen HC, Wang FD, Hou KL, Cheng J, Wang MS, Yang YT, Chiu HC, Jiang MH, Shih HY, Shen HY, Chang PY, Lan YR, Chen CT, Lin YL, Liang JJ, Liao CC, Chou YC, Morris MK, Hanson CV, Guirakhoo F, Hellerstein M, Yu HJ, King CC, Kemp T, Heppner DG, Monath TP. 2022a. A multitope SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provides long-lasting B cell and t cell immunity against delta and omicron variants. J Clin Invest, 132, e157707.

    40. Wang F, Huang B, Lv H, Feng L, Ren W, Wang X, Tang L, Liu Q, Wu D, Zheng H, An Z, Deng Y, Zhao L, Ye F, Wang W, Zhang H, Chang S, Liao Y, Chen F, Rodewald LE, Gao GF, Yin Z, Tan W. 2022b. Factors associated with neutralizing antibody levels induced by two inactivated COVID-19 vaccines for 12 months after primary series vaccination. Front Immunol, 13:967051.

    41. Wang K, Jia Z, Bao L, Wang L, Cao L, Chi H, Hu Y, Li Q, Zhou Y, Jiang Y, Zhu Q, Deng Y, Liu P, Wang N, Wang L, Liu M, Li Y, Zhu B, Fan K, Fu W, Yang P, Pei X, Cui Z, Qin L, Ge P, Wu J, Liu S, Chen Y, Huang W, Wang Q, Qin CF, Wang Y, Qin C, Wang X. 2022c. Memory B cell repertoire from triple vaccinees against diverse SARS-CoV-2 variants. Nature, 603:919-925.

    42. Woldemeskel BA, Garliss CC, Aytenfisu TY, Johnston TS, Cox AL, Karaba AH, Blankson JN. 2022. Discordant Antibody and T-Cell Responses to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Omicron Variant in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Messenger RNA Vaccine Recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 75, 1652-1654.

    43. Xin Q, Wu Q, Chen X, Han B, Chu K, Song Y, Jin H, Chen P, Lu W, Yang T, Li M, Zhao Y, Pan H, Yu H, Wang L. 2022. Six-month follow-up of a booster dose of coronavac in two single-centre phase 2 clinical trials. Nat Commun, 13:3100.

    44. Xue JB, Lai DY, Jiang HW, Qi H, Guo SJ, Zhu YS, Xu H, Zhou J, Tao SC. 2022. Landscape of the RBD-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA responses triggered by the inactivated virus vaccine against the omicron variant. Cell Discov, 8:15.

    45. Zhang Z, Wu S, Liu Y, Kailiang Li K, Pengfei Fan P, Song X, Wang Y, Zhao Z, Zhang X, Shang J, Zhang J, Xu J, Li Y, Li Y, Zhang J, Fu K, Wang B, Hao M, Zhang G, Long P, Qiu Z, Zhu T, Liu S, Zhang Y, Shao F, Lv P, Yang Y, Zhao X, Sun Y, Hou L, Chen W. 2022. Aerosolized Ad5-nCoV booster vaccination elicited potent immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant after inactivated COVID-19 vaccine priming. medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.03.08.22271816

  • 加载中

Article Metrics

Article views(1856) PDF downloads(12) Cited by()

Related
Proportional views

    Omicron variants breakthrough infection elicited higher specific memory immunity than third dose booster in healthy vaccinees

      Corresponding author: Zheng Chen, docchenzheng@163.com
      Corresponding author: Yuemei Liang, 784604898@qq.com
      Corresponding author: Pingchao Li, li_pingchao@gibh.ac.cn
      Corresponding author: Lei Zhang, 517728181@qq.com
      Corresponding author: Tianxing Ji, jitianxing7021@163.com
    • a. Clinical Laboratory Medicine Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510260, China;
    • b. State Key Laboratories of Respiratory Diseases, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory of Infectious Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510535, China;
    • c. Clinical Laboratory Medicine Department, Dongguan Ninth People's Hospital, Dongguan, 523016, China;
    • d. State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510120, China;
    • e. Clinical Laboratory Medicine Department, Maoming People's Hospital, Maoming, 525000, China;
    • f. Laboratory of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Poonch Rawalakot Azad Kashmir Pakistan 12350, Pakistan;
    • g. Hospital Infection-Control Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510260, China;
    • h. Medical Examination Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510260, China;
    • i. Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510140, China;
    • j. Kidney Transplant Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510260, China;
    • k. Department of Organ Transplantation, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 510630, China;
    • l. Guangzhou Key Laboratory for Clinical Rapid Diagnosis and Early Warning of Infectious Diseases, KingMed School of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 511436, China

    Abstract: Homologous booster, heterologous booster, and Omicron variants breakthrough infection (OBI) could improve the humoral immunity against Omicron variants. Questions concerning about memory B cells (MBCs) and T cells immunity against Omicron variants, features of long-term immunity, after booster and OBI, needs to be explored. Here, comparative analysis demonstrate antibody and T cell immunity against ancestral strain, Delta and Omicron variants in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (OBIPs) are comparable to that in Ad5-nCoV boosted healthy volunteers (HVs), higher than that in inactivated vaccine (InV) boosted HVs. However, memory B cells (MBCs) immunity against Omicron variants was highest in OBIPs, followed by Ad5-nCoV boosted and InV boosted HVs. OBIPs and Ad5-nCoV boosted HVs have higher classical MBCs and activated MBCs, and lower naïve MBCs and atypical MBCs relative to both vaccine boosted HVs. Collectively, these data indicate Omicron breakthrough infection elicit higher MBCs and T cells against SARS-CoV-2 especially Omicron variants relative to homologous InV booster and heterologous Ad5-nCoV booster.

    Reference (45) Relative (20)

    目录

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return