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Focused Topic "Special Issue: SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 (II)"
Issue Editor: Zheng-Li Shi, PhD, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
By the end of November 2020, SARS-CoV-2—the new coronavirus behind the disease COVID-19—has infected over 60 million people around the world and caused about one and a half million deaths. Facing the biggest global pandemic of the century, doctors, scientists and the scientific community have been working hard to uncover the pathogenesis and search for effective scientific solutions. Virologica Sinica has online published a series of original articles and reviews on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, covering topics on clinical cohorts/cases and disease features, virus characterization and surveillance, diagnosis and improved methods, antiviral agents and therapeutic treatment, and etc, and they are collectively presented in this special issue. Those researches have greatly advanced our understandings of and empowered our strength to combat the disease. The cover depicts the SARS-CoV-2 virus particle, surrounded by human blood cells.
  • 靶向新冠病毒的人源单克隆抗体及其中和表位的研究进展

    陈俊森, 黄锐, 聂奕雯, 温心月, 吴莹

    2020, 35(6): 713 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00327-x

    收稿日期: 2020-08-24 录用日期: 2020-11-11 出版日期: 2021-01-04
    [HTML全文] [PDF 486 KB] Springerlink
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reminiscent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, has been a tragic disaster to people all over the world. As there is no specific drug for COVID-19, neutralizing antibodies are attracting more and more attention as one of the most effective means to combat the pandemic. Here, we introduced the etiological and serological characteristics of COVID-19, discussed the current stage of development of human monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and summarized the antigenic epitopes in the S glycoprotein, which may deepen the understanding of the profile of immune recognition and response against SARS-CoV-2 and provide insight for the design of effective vaccines and antibody-based therapies.
  • 武汉新型冠状病毒肺炎儿童的流行病学、临床和血清学特征:一项单中心、回顾性研究

    罗丹, 夏治, 李恒, 涂丹娜, 王霆, 张玮, 彭璐, 易文富, 张赛, 舒俊华, 许慧, 李勇, 石步云, 黄成姣, 汤文, 肖书娜, 舒小兰, 刘艳, 张源, 郭珊, 余志, 王宝香, 高源, 胡勤学, 王汉中, 宋晓晖, 梅红, 周小勤, 郑振华

    2020, 35(6): 861 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00333-z

    收稿日期: 2020-08-26 录用日期: 2020-11-30 出版日期: 2020-12-22
    [HTML全文] [PDF 657 KB] Springerlink
    In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in the samples obtained from three adult patients who suffered from an unknown viral pneumonia in Wuhan (Li et al. 2020). This unknown viral pneumonia is further named as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization. To date, the number of new COVID-19 cases has continued to skyrocket and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on humans is far greater than any pathogen of this century in both breadth and depth. Previous studies have shown that adults with COVID-19 have symptoms of fever, dry cough, dyspnea, fatigue and lymphocytopenia. Moreover, COVID-19 is more likely to cause death in the elderly, especially those with chronic comorbidities (Huang et al. 2020). In Wuhan, more than 50, 000 COVID-19 cases have been confirmed, including over 780 pediatric patients, and only one child death case (Lu et al. 2020). Although the number of children cases was far fewer than that of adults, COVID-19 might endanger children's health and the information on children remains limited, especially in serological study. In the retrospective study, the investigators analyzed the epidemiological, clinical and serological characteristics of children with COVID-19 in Wuhan in the early stages of the outbreak, which might provide theoretical and practical help in controlling COVID-19 and similar emerging infectious diseases in the future.
  • 不同疾病严重程度的COVID-19患者急性和恢复期的病毒和抗体动力学

    张小勇, 卢素文, 李晖, 王奕, 卢振, 刘智泓, 赖钦涛, 纪雅丽, 黄璇, 李咏茵, 孙剑, 吴英松, 徐晓宁, 侯金林

    2020, 35(6): 820 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00329-9

    收稿日期: 2020-09-01 录用日期: 2020-11-23 出版日期: 2020-12-22
    [HTML全文] [PDF 549 KB] Springerlink
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly around the world, posing a major threat to human health and the economy. Currently, long-term data on viral shedding and the serum antibody responses in COVID-19 patients are still limited. Herein, we report the clinical features, viral RNA loads, and serum antibody levels in a cohort of 112 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Honghu People's Hospital, Hubei Province, China. Overall, 5.36% (6/112) of patients showed persistent viral RNA shedding (> 45 days). The peak viral load was higher in the severe disease group than in the mild group (median cycle threshold value, 36.4 versus 31.5; P = 0.002). For most patients the disappearance of IgM antibodies occurred approximately 4-6 weeks after symptoms onset, while IgG persisted for over 194 days after the onset of symptoms, although patients showed a 46% reduction in antibodies titres against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein compared with the acute phase. We also studied 18 asymptomatic individuals with RT-qPCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection together with 17 symptomatic patients, and the asymptomatic individuals were the close contacts of these symptomatic cases. Delayed IgG seroconversion and lower IgM seropositive rates were observed in asymptomatic individuals. These data indicate that higher viral loads and stronger antibody responses are related to more severe disease status in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the antibodies persisted in the recovered patient for more than 6 months so that the vaccine may provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • 中国国家药品监督管理局批准的SARS-CoV-2检测试剂盒及其在COVID-19诊断中的应用

    阿茹罕, 王慧娟, 王文玲, 谭文杰

    2020, 35(6): 699 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00331-1

    收稿日期: 2020-07-23 录用日期: 2020-11-25 出版日期: 2020-12-22
    [HTML全文] [PDF 1137 KB] Springerlink
    The on-going global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been underway for about 11 months. Through November 20,2020,51 detection kits for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids (24 kits), antibodies (25 kits), or antigens (2 kits) have been approved by the National Medical Products Administration of China (NMPA). Convenient and reliable SARS-CoV-2 detection assays are urgently needed worldwide for strategic control of the pandemic. In this review, the detection kits approved in China are summarised and the three types of tests, namely nucleic acid, serological and antigen detection, which are available for the detection of COVID-19 are discussed in detail. The development of novel detection kits will lay the foundation for the control and prevention of the COVID-19 pandemic globally.
  • Correction to: Dynamic Changes of Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 Patients at Early Stage of Outbreak

    Huaqing Shu, Shuzhen Wang, Shunan Ruan, Yaxin Wang, Jiancheng Zhang, Yin Yuan, Hong Liu, Yongran Wu, Ruiting Li, Shangwen Pan, Yaqi Ouyang, Shiying Yuan, Peng Zhou, You Shang

    2020, 35(6): 887 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00318-y

    出版日期: 2020-11-24
    [HTML全文] [PDF 169 KB] Springerlink

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world with high mortality. To diagnose promptly and accurately is the vital step to effectively control its pandemic. Dynamic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies which are important for diagnosis of infection have not been fully demonstrated. In this retrospective, single-center, observational study, we enrolled the initial 131 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Jin-Yin-Tan Hospital who had at least one-time antibody tested during their hospitalization. The dynamic changes of IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in 226 serum samples were detected by ELISA. The sensitivities of IgM and IgG ELISA detection were analyzed. Result showed that the sensitivity of the IgG ELISA detection (92.5%) was significantly higher than that of the IgM (70.8%) (P < 0.001). The meantimes of seroconversion for IgM and IgG were 6 days and 3 days, respectively. The IgM and IgG antibody levels peaked at around 18 days and 23 days, and then IgM fell to below the baseline level at about day 36, whereas IgG maintained at a relatively high level. In conclusion, antibodies should be detected to aid in diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. IgG could be a sensitive indicator for retrospective diagnosis and contact tracing, while IgM could be an indicator of early infection.

  • 基于纵向实验室检查结果预测COVID-19患者康复的预后模型

    田肃岩, 朱学彤, 孙雪娟, 王金梅, 周琪, 王驰, 陈莉, 李善姬, 许建成

    2020, 35(6): 811 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00317-z

    收稿日期: 2020-06-01 录用日期: 2020-10-09 出版日期: 2020-11-10
    [HTML全文] [PDF 1137 KB] Springerlink
    The temporal change patterns of laboratory data may provide insightful clues into the whole course of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate longitudinal change patterns of key laboratory tests in patients with COVID-19, and identify independent prognostic factors by examining the associations between laboratory findings and outcomes of patients. This multicenter study included 56 patients with COVID-19 treated in Jilin Province, China, from January 21, 2020 to March 5, 2020. The laboratory findings, epidemiological characteristics and demographic data were extracted from electronic medical records. The average value of eosinophils and carbon dioxide combining power continued to significantly increase, while the average value of cardiac troponin I and mean platelet volume decreased throughout the course of the disease. The average value of lymphocytes approached the lower limit of the reference interval for the first 5 days and then rose slowly thereafter. The average value of thrombocytocrit peaked on day 7 and slowly declined thereafter. The average value of mean corpuscular volume and serum sodium showed an upward trend from day 8 and day 15, respectively. Age, sex, lactate dehydrogenase, platelet count and globulin level were included in the final model to predict the probability of recovery. The above parameters were verified in 24 patients with COVID-19 in another area of Jilin Province. The risk stratification and management of patients with COVID-19 could be improved according to the temporal trajectories of laboratory tests.
  • SARS-CoV-2长期阳性的新型冠状病毒肺炎病人:宿主免疫,病毒毒力和传染性

    王星宇, 黄坤, 蒋海泥, 花丽娟, 余维巍, 丁丹, 王珂, 李小攀, 邹忠, 金梅林, 许淑云

    2020, 35(6): 793 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00308-0

    收稿日期: 2020-08-13 录用日期: 2020-09-10 出版日期: 2020-11-06
    [HTML全文] [PDF 933 KB] Springerlink
    COVID-19 patients can recover with a median SARS-CoV-2 clearance of 20 days post initial symptoms (PIS). However, we observed some COVID-19 patients with existing SARS-CoV-2 for more than 50 days PIS. This study aimed to investigate the cause of viral clearance delay and the infectivity in these patients. Demographic data and clinical characteristics of 22 long-term COVID-19 patients were collected. The median age of the studied cohort was 59.83 ± 12.94 years. All patients were clinically cured after long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from 53 to 112 days PIS. Peripheral lymphocytes counts were normal. The ratios of interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-secreting cells to total CD4+ and CD8+ cells were normal as 24.68% ± 9.60% and 66.41% ± 14.87% respectively. However, the number of IFN-γ-secreting NK cells diminished (58.03% ± 11.78%). All patients presented detectable IgG, which positively correlated with mild neutralizing activity (Mean value neutralisation antibodies titers = 157.2, P= 0.05). No SARS-CoV-2 virus was isolated in Vero E6 cells inoculated with nasopharyngeal swab samples from all patients 50 days PIS, and the cytopathic effect was lacking. But one sample was positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test in cell supernatants after two passages. Genome sequencing revealed that only three synonymous variants were identified in spike protein coding regions. In conclusion, decreased IFN-γ production by NK cells and low neutralizing antibodies might favor SARS-CoV-2 long-term existence. Further, low viral load and weak viral pathogenicity were observed in COVID-19 patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • 新型冠状病毒感染后有症状与无症状患儿的临床特点和流行病学特征比较

    蔡洁皓, 王相诗, 赵隽, 葛艳玲, 徐锦, 田鹤, 常海岭, 夏爱梅, 王佳丽, 张进强, 魏仲秋, 李晶晶, 王楚宁, 王建设, 朱启鎔, 翟晓文, 曾玫

    2020, 35(6): 803 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00312-4

    收稿日期: 2020-07-19 录用日期: 2020-10-11 出版日期: 2020-11-04
    [HTML全文] [PDF 351 KB] Springerlink
    To understand the epidemiological and clinical features of the symptomatic and asymptomatic pediatric cases of COVID-19, we carried out a prospective study in Shanghai during the period of January 19 to April 30, 2020. A total of 49 children (mean age 11.5 ± 5.12 years) confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in the study, including 11 (22.4%) domestic cases and 38 (77.6%) imported cases. Nine (81.8%) local cases and 12 (31.6%) imported cases had a definitive epidemiological exposure. Twenty-eight (57.1%) were symptomatic and 21 (42.9%) were asymptomatic. Neither asymptomatic nor symptomatic cases progressed to severe diseases. The mean duration of viral shedding for SARS-CoV-2 in upper respiratory tract was 14.1 ± 6.4 days in asymptomatic cases and 14.8 ± 8.4 days in symptomatic cases (P > 0.05). Forty-five (91.8%) cases had viral RNA detected in stool. The mean duration of viral shedding in stool was 28.1 ± 13.3 days in asymptomatic cases and 30.8 ± 18.6 days in symptomatic participants (P > 0.05). Children < 7 years shed viral RNA in stool for a longer duration than school-aged children (P < 0.05). Forty-three (87.8%) cases had seropositivity for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 within 1–3 weeks after confirmation with infection. In conclusion, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection may be common in children in the community during the COVID-19 pandemic wave. Asymptomatic cases shed viral RNA in a similar pattern as symptomatic cases do. It is of particular concern that asymptomatic individuals are potentially seed transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and pose a challenge to disease control.
  • 新型冠状病毒的基因组、结构、受体和起源

    王仕川, Trilling Mirko, Sutter Kathrin, Dittmer Ulf, Lu Mengji, 郑昕, 杨东亮, 刘嘉

    2020, 35(6): 673 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00298-z

    收稿日期: 2020-07-20 录用日期: 2020-08-31 出版日期: 2020-10-17
    [HTML全文] [PDF 749 KB] Springerlink
    The recent emergence and rapid global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pose an unprecedented medical and socioeconomic crisis, and the disease caused by it, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Chinese scientists and physicians rapidly identified the causative pathogen, which turned out to be a novel betacoronavirus with high sequence similarities to bat and pangolin coronaviruses. The scientific community has ignited tremendous efforts to unravel the biological underpinning of SARS-CoV-2, which constitutes the foundation for therapy and vaccine development strategies. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge on the genome, structure, receptor, and origin of SARS-CoV-2.
  • 糖基结合蛋白griffithsin和广谱冠状病毒入侵抑制剂EK1的联合应用能够协同抑制SARS-CoV-2感染

    蔡艳星, 徐巍, 谷陈建, 蔡霞, 瞿涤, 陆路, 谢幼华, 姜世勃

    2020, 35(6): 857 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00305-3

    收稿日期: 2020-08-12 录用日期: 2020-09-10 出版日期: 2020-10-14
    [HTML全文] [PDF 2159 KB] Springerlink
    In this study, we tested the in vitro inhibitory activity of griffithsin (GRFT) against infection of pseudotyped and live SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to repurpose the application of GRFT as a potential prophylactic or therapeutic to prevent or treat COVID-19.
  • Different Laboratory Abnormalities in COVID-19 Patients with Hypertension or Diabetes

    Xiaojun Wu, Tong Wang, Yilu Zhou, Xiaofan Liu, Hong Zhou, Yang Lu, Weijun Tan, Mingli Yuan, Xuhong Ding, Jinjing Zou, Ruiyun Li, Hailing Liu, Rob M. Ewing, Yi Hu, Hanxiang Nie, Yihua Wang

    2020, 35(6): 853 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00296-1

    收稿日期: 2020-07-09 录用日期: 2020-08-31 出版日期: 2020-09-30
    [HTML全文] [PDF 431 KB] Springerlink
    We reported recently that hypertension is a risk factor for severe cases of COVID-19, independent of age and other variables (Liu et al. 2020a). An important question is why patients with hypertension and diabetes yield poorer clinical outcomes than those without. Human pathogenic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for viral cell entry. Since the levels of ACE2 are substantially increased in patients with hypertension or diabetes, who are treated with ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin Ⅱ type-Ⅰ receptor blockers (ARBs) (Ferrario et al. 2005), Fang and colleagues hypothesized that ACE2-stimulating drugs could potentially increase the risk of developing severe COVID-19 (Fang et al. 2020). This was not supported by a recent study led by Dr. Reynolds (Reynolds et al. 2020), whose analysis showed no positive association for ACEIs or ARBs for either the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or severe illness (Reynolds et al. 2020). What else might explain the poorer clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension or diabetes?To explore this question, we re-analysed the same cohort of 99 COVID-19 patients discharged from the general wards of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between 5 February 2020 and 14 March 2020 (Ethics approval No: WDRY2020-K124) (Liu et al. 2020a, b).
  • 新型冠状病毒疾病:抗病毒药物、抗体及中药研究进展

    管文艺, 蓝文东, 张静, 赵珊, 欧俊贤, 吴晓薇, 严雨茜, 吴建国, 张其威

    2020, 35(6): 685 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00297-0

    收稿日期: 2020-07-03 录用日期: 2020-08-31 出版日期: 2020-09-30
    [HTML全文] [PDF 348 KB] Springerlink
    The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the first pandemic caused by coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, there is no effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug approved worldwide for treatment of patients with COVID-19. Therapeutic options in response to the COVID-19 outbreak are urgently needed. To facilitate the better and faster development of therapeutic COVID-19 drugs, we present an overview of the global promising therapeutic drugs, including repurposing existing antiviral agents, network-based pharmacology research, antibody development and traditional Chinese medicine. Among all these drugs, we focus on the most promising drugs (such as favipiravir, tocilizumab, SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, Lianhua Qingwen, interferon beta-1a, remdesivir, etc.) that have or will enter the final stage of human testing—phase III–IV clinical trials.
  • SARS-CoV-2负压隔离病房重要风险点的鉴定识别及环境的污染监测

    宋志刚, 陈燕玫, 吴凡, 徐琳, 王邦芳, 石磊, 陈骁, 代发辉, 佘佳磊, 陈建民, 霍姆斯爱德华C., 朱同玉, 张永振

    2020, 35(6): 785 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00301-7

    收稿日期: 2020-05-28 录用日期: 2020-08-31 出版日期: 2020-09-28
    [HTML全文] [PDF 611 KB] Springerlink
    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of occupational exposure to the new pandemic human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and are a source of nosocomial transmission in airborne infectious isolation rooms (AIIRs). Here, we performed comprehensive environmental contamination surveillance to evaluate the risk of viral transmission in AIIRs with 115 rooms in three buildings at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai, during the treatment of 334 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that the risk of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in AIIRs was low (1.62%, 25/1544) due to the directional airflow and strong environmental hygiene procedures. However, we detected viral RNA on the surface of foot-operated openers and bathroom sinks in AIIRs (viral load: 55.00–3154.50 copies/mL). This might be a source of contamination to connecting corridors and object surfaces through the footwear and gloves used by HCWs. The risk of infection was eliminated by the use of disposable footwear covers and the application of more effective environmental and personal hygiene measures. With the help of effective infection control procedures, none of 290 HCWs was infected when working in the AIIRs at this hospital. This study has provided information pertinent for infection control in AIIRs during the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
  • Correction to: Discrimination of False Negative Results in RT-PCR Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNAs in Clinical Specimens by Using an Internal Reference

    Yafei Zhang, Changtai Wang, Mingfeng Han, Jun Ye, Yong Gao, Zhongping Liu, Tengfei He, Tuantuan Li, Mengyuan Xu, Luping Zhou, Guizhou Zou, Mengji Lu, Zhenhua Zhang

    2020, 35(6): 885 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00293-4

    出版日期: 2020-09-21
    [HTML全文] [PDF 412 KB] Springerlink
    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is an essential method for specific diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unfortunately, false negative test results are often reported. In this study, we attempted to determine the principal causes leading to false negative results of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNAs in respiratory tract specimens. Multiple sputum and throat swab specimens from 161 confirmed COVID-19 patients were tested with a commercial fluorescent RT-PCR kit targeting the ORF1ab and N regions of SARS-CoV-2 genome. The RNA level of a cellular housekeeping gene ribonuclease P/MRP subunit p30 (RPP30) in these specimens was also assessed by RT-PCR. Data for a total of 1052 samples were retrospectively re-analyzed and a strong association between positive results in SARS-CoV-2 RNA tests and high level of RPP30 RNA in respiratory tract specimens was revealed. By using the ROC-AUC analysis, we identified Ct cutoff values for RPP30 RT-PCR which predicted false negative results for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR with high sensitivity (95.03%–95.26%) and specificity (83.72%–98.55%) for respective combination of specimen type and amplification reaction. Using these Ct cutoff values, false negative results could be reliably identified. Therefore, the presence of cellular materials, likely infected host cells, are essential for correct SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by RT-PCR in patient specimens. RPP30 could serve as an indicator for cellular content, or a surrogate indicator for specimen quality. In addition, our results demonstrated that false negativity accounted for a vast majority of contradicting results in SARS-CoV-2 RNA test by RT-PCR.
  • 针对新冠病毒蛋白酶抑制剂抗病毒活性分析

    张磊砢, 刘佳, 曹瑞源, 徐明月, 吴妍, 尚卫娟, 汪习, 张环宇, 姜夏铭, 孙源, 胡恒睿, 李玉凤, 邹罡, 张珉, 赵磊, 李微, 郭小家, 庄笑梅, 杨兴娄, 石正丽, 邓菲, 胡志红, 肖庚富, 王曼丽, 钟武

    2020, 35(6): 776 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00288-1

    收稿日期: 2020-08-04 录用日期: 2020-08-14 出版日期: 2020-09-10
    [HTML全文] [PDF 1922 KB] Springerlink
    The recent outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by a new coronavirus has posed a great threat to public health. Identifying safe and effective antivirals is of urgent demand to cure the huge number of patients. Virus-encoded proteases are considered potential drug targets. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors (lopinavir/ritonavir) has been recommended in the global Solidarity Trial in March launched by World Health Organization. However, there is currently no experimental evidence to support or against its clinical use. We evaluated the antiviral efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir along with other two viral protease inhibitors in vitro, and discussed the possible inhibitory mechanism in silico. The in vitro to in vivo extrapolation was carried out to assess whether lopinavir/ritonavir could be effective in clinical. Among the four tested compounds, lopinavir showed the best inhibitory effect against the novel coronavirus infection. However, further in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of pharmacokinetics suggested that lopinavir/ritonavir could not reach effective concentration under standard dosing regimen [marketed as Kaletra®, contained lopinavir/ritonavir (200 mg/50 mg) tablets, recommended dosage is 400 mg/10 mg (2 tablets) twice daily]. This research concluded that lopinavir/ritonavir should be stopped for clinical use due to the huge gap between in vitro IC50 and free plasma concentration. Nevertheless, the structure–activity relationship analysis of the four inhibitors provided further information for de novel design of future viral protease inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2.
  • 一项对两例合并感染SARS-CoV-2和人体免疫缺陷病毒的病例进行的研究

    张蓉, 陈晓华, 黄钰清, 张祺, 程琰, 张楠, 张海波, 杨博, 刘芳, 刘映乐, 蓝柯

    2020, 35(6): 849 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00280-9

    收稿日期: 2020-05-07 录用日期: 2020-08-13 出版日期: 2020-09-07
    [HTML全文] [PDF 250 KB] Springerlink
    Since December 2019, A new type of coronavirus pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) has become endemic in Wuhan, China. So far, COVID-19 has developed into a global epidemic. The body's immune system plays an important role in the fight against COVID-19. Here, we followed up the clinical data and treatment of two COVID-19 patients diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hoping to be helpful for the subsequent diagnosis and treatment of patients with related diseases.
  • Coping with COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Might the Future Hold?

    Franck J. D. Mennechet, Guy R. Takoudjou Dzomo

    2020, 35(6): 875 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00279-2

    收稿日期: 2020-06-04 录用日期: 2020-07-24 出版日期: 2020-09-01
    [HTML全文] [PDF 322 KB] Springerlink
    Sub-Saharan countries are sadly linked with similar poor indicators, such as high poverty and mortality rates, the burden of disease, fragile health systems and poorly developed infrastructure. Along with the rest of the world, Sub-Saharan countries are facing this new coronavirus outbreak. Nevertheless, chaotic predictions of a particularly destructive epidemic in Africa do not seem to be borne out, at least for the time being. But uncertainties remain, such as how the virus is spreading in countries with low incomes, informal economies, high HIV/tuberculosis prevalence, extremely low median age, or warm/dry climates and for which containments are almost impossible to enforce? Not even 8 months after the first reported case in China, parts of the world are already showing post-lockdown twilight measures. Yet, the war is certainly far from over, because the virus is gaining ground in the sub-Saharan zone. This viewpoint attempts to describe the COVID-19 crisis in a sub-Saharan perspective, in particular in the Republic of Chad, from both, distant perception and by living it on a daily basis.
  • 我国新冠疫情前后猫新冠病毒的血清学调查

    邓均华, 刘玉秀, 孙春燕, 白晶晶, 孙杰, 郝丽颖, 李向东, 田克恭

    2020, 35(6): 846 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00284-5

    收稿日期: 2020-06-12 录用日期: 2020-08-03 出版日期: 2020-09-01
    [HTML全文] [PDF 199 KB] Springerlink
    The high percentage of seropositivity of cats in Wuhan, the epicentre of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, could be due to the large number of infected human cases (more than 14 folds than that in other cities) (Table 1) where cats may have been more frequently exposed to SARS-CoV-2 patients or contaminated environment. As yet, SARS-CoV-2 serological prevalence of cats in other Chinese cities remains unknown. Therefore, a serological survey including more cities with numbers of SARS-CoV-2 human cases in China will be valuable for elucidating the role of cats in transmission of the viruses and relieve public concerns. In this study, 630 cat serum samples collected before November 2019 and 423 cat serum samples collected during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak (from February 2020 to April 2020) in 20 cities in China for detecting the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies.
  • 长程SARS-CoV-2 RNA阳性的患者使用恢复期血浆治疗的疗效分析:一项观察性回顾性研究

    吴永然, 洪可, 阮连国, 杨小博, 张建成, 徐继前, 潘尚文, 任乐豪, 陈露, 黄朝林, 尚游

    2020, 35(6): 768 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00281-8

    收稿日期: 2020-07-09 录用日期: 2020-08-03 出版日期: 2020-08-31
    [HTML全文] [PDF 459 KB] Springerlink
    Convalescent plasma therapy has been implemented in a few cases of severe coronavirus disease 2019. No report about convalescent plasma therapy in treating patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been published. In this study, we conducted a retrospective observational study in 27 patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the clinical benefit of convalescent plasma therapy were analyzed. qRT-PCR test of SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned negative (≤ 7 days) in a part of patients (early negative group, n = 15) after therapy, others (late negative group, n = 12) turned negative in more than 7 days. Pulmonary imaging improvement was confirmed in 7 patients in early negative group and 8 in late negative group after CP therapy. Viral load decreased in early negative group compared with late negative group at day 3, 5, 7 after implementing convalescent plasma therapy. Patients in early negative group had a shorter median length of hospital stay. In conclusion, convalescent plasma therapy might help eliminate virus and shorten length of hospital stay in patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
  • 乙肝患者合并严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒-2 (SARS-CoV-2)感染的临床特征

    陈小平, 姜群群, 马智勇, 凌佳馨, 胡文佳, 曹倩, 莫平征, 姚磊, 杨蓉蓉, 高世成, 桂希恩, 侯炜, 熊勇, 李金林, 张永喜

    2020, 35(6): 842 doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00276-5

    收稿日期: 2020-05-17 录用日期: 2020-07-13 出版日期: 2020-08-24
    [HTML全文] [PDF 215 KB] Springerlink
    In addition to the recent emerged SARS-CoV-2, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the viruses which cause a global infection and threat public health. In worldwide, the prevalence of HBsAg is about 3.9% (Polaris Observatory 2018). According to a nationwide epidemiological survey of population whose ages range from 1 to 59 years in China, 2006, the prevalence of HBsAg was 7.2% (Liang et al. 2009). As SARS-CoV-2 and HBV both can cause liver damage (Fan et al. 2020), further understanding of the risk of SARS-CoV-2 on patients with HBV infection is urgently required in order to design an optimized treatment strategy. However, the impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection on HBV patients are still not clear. For example, we do not yet know whether the SARS-CoV-2 infection is more severe in HBV patients and we also do not have much knowledge about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the course of HBV infection. In this retrospective study, we investigated the clinical characterizes of the patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and HBV by analyzing the clinical records and laboratory tests of 123 COVID-19 patients admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from January 5 to February 20, 2020.
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36卷第6期 (2021年12月)

ISSN 1674-0769

EISSN 1995-820X

CN 42-1760/Q

主编: 石正丽

影响因子: 4.327*

*源于2020年JCR

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