• Barroso I, Luan J, Sandhu MS, Franks PW, Crowley V, Schafer AJ, O’Rahilly S, Wareham NJ (2006) Meta-analysis of the Gly482Ser variant in PPARGC1A in type 2 diabetes and related phenotypes. Diabetologia 49:501–505

  • Burgueno AL, Cabrerizo R, Gonzales Mansilla N, Sookoian S, Pirola CJ (2013) Maternal high-fat intake during pregnancy programs metabolic-syndrome-related phenotypes through liver mitochondrial DNA copy number and transcriptional activity of liver ppargc1a. J Nutr Biochem 24:6–13

  • Chen Y, Mu P, He S, Tang X, Guo X, Li H, Xu H, Woo SL, Qian X, Zeng L, Wu C (2013) Gly482ser mutation impairs the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha on decreasing fat deposition and stimulating phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression in hepatocytes. Nutr Res 33:332–339

  • Cheng Y, Dharancy S, Malapel M, Desreumaux P (2005) Hepatitis C virus infection down-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and carnitine palmitoyl acyl-CoA transferase 1a. World J Gastroenterol 11:7591–7596

  • Cheng CF, Ku HC, Lin H (2018) PGC-1alpha as a pivotal factor in lipid and metabolic regulation. Int J Mol Sci 19:3447

  • Choi J, Ou JH (2006) Mechanisms of liver injury. III. Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hepatitis c virus. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290:G847–G851

  • Dharancy S, Malapel M, Perlemuter G, Roskams T, Cheng Y, Dubuquoy L, Podevin P, Conti F, Canva V, Philippe D, Gambiez L, Mathurin P, Paris JC, Schoonjans K, Calmus Y, Pol S, Auwerx J, Desreumaux P (2005) Impaired expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha during hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology 128:334–342

  • Ek J, Andersen G, Urhammer SA, Gaede PH, Drivsholm T, BorchJohnsen K, Hansen T, Pedersen O (2001) Mutation analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1(PGC-1) and relationships of identified amino acid polymorphisms to type ii diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 44:2220–2226

  • Estall JL, Kahn M, Cooper MP, Fisher FM, Wu MK, Laznik D, Qu L, Cohen DE, Shulman GI, Spiegelman BM (2009) Sensitivity of lipid metabolism and insulin signaling to genetic alterations in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha expression. Diabetes 58:1499–1508

  • Ezzikouri S, Elfihry R, Chihab H, Elmessaoudi-Idrissi M, Zaidane I, Jadid FZ, Karami A, Tahiri M, Elhabazi A, Kabine M, Chair M, Pineau P, Benjelloun S (2018) Effect of MBOAT7 variant on hepatitis B and C infections in moroccan patients. Sci Rep 8:12247

  • Finck BN, Kelly DP (2006) PGC-1 coactivators: inducible regulators of energy metabolism in health and disease. J Clin Invest 116:615–622

  • Houstis N, Rosen ED, Lander ES (2006) Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance. Nature 440:944–948

  • Hui JM, Sud A, Farrell GC, Bandara P, Byth K, Kench JG, McCaughan GW, George J (2003) Insulin resistance is associated with chronic hepatitis c virus infection and fibrosis progression [corrected]. Gastroenterology 125:1695–1704

  • Jacobson IM, Cacoub P, Dal Maso L, Harrison SA, Younossi ZM (2010) Manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection beyond the liver. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 8:1017–1029

  • Knobler H, Schattner A (2005) TNF-α, chronic hepatitis c and diabetes: a novel triad. QJM 98:1–6

  • Kunej T, Globocnik Petrovic M, Dovc P, Peterlin B, Petrovic D (2004) A Gly482Ser polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) gene is associated with type 2 diabetes in caucasians. Folia Biol (Praha) 50:157–158

  • Lauer GM, Walker BD (2001) Hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 345:41–52

  • Lazo M, Nwankwo C, Daya NR, Thomas DL, Mehta SH, Juraschek S, Willis K, Selvin E (2017) Confluence of epidemics of hepatitis C, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease in the united states population. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 15(1957–1964):e1957

  • Li X, Monks B, Ge Q, Birnbaum MJ (2007) Akt/PKB regulates hepatic metabolism by directly inhibiting PGC-1alpha transcription coactivator. Nature 447:1012–1016

  • Liu R, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Li S, Wang X, Wang X, Wang C, Liu B, Zen K, Zhang CY, Zhang C, Ba Y (2017) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma. Tumour Biol 39:1010428317695031

  • Maeno T, Okumura A, Ishikawa T, Kato K, Sakakibara F, Sato K, Ayada M, Hotta N, Tagaya T, Fukuzawa Y, Kakumu S (2003)Mechanisms of increased insulin resistance in non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:1358–1363

  • Mirzaei K, Hossein-nezhad A, Emamgholipour S, Ansar H, Khosrofar M, Tootee A, Alatab S (2012) An exonic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha variation may mediate the resting energy expenditure through a potential regulatory role on important gene expression in this pathway.

  • J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 5:59–71

  • Mosley JW, Operskalski EA, Tobler LH, Andrews WW, Phelps B, Dockter J, Giachetti C, Busch MP (2005) Viral and host factors in early hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 42:86–92

  • Musaiger AO (2011) Overweight and obesity in eastern mediterranean region: prevalence and possible causes. J Obes 2011:407237

  • Niederau C, Lange S, Heintges T, Erhardt A, Buschkamp M, Hurter D, Nawrocki M, Kruska L, Hensel F, Petry W, Haussinger D (1998) Prognosis of chronic hepatitis C: results of a large, prospective cohort study. Hepatology 28:1687–1695

  • Parvaiz F, Manzoor S, Iqbal J, McRae S, Javed F, Ahmed QL, Waris G (2014) Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5a favors upregulation of gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression leading towards insulin resistance: a metabolic syndrome. Arch Virol 159:1017–1025

  • Qadri I, Choudhury M, Rahman SM, Knotts TA, Janssen RC, Schaack J, Iwahashi M, Puljak L, Simon FR, Kilic G, Fitz JG, Friedman JE (2012) Increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and steatosis during hepatitis C virus subgenome replication: role of nonstructural component 5a and CCAAT/

  • enhancer-binding protein beta. J Biol Chem 287:37340–37351

  • Ramos-Lopez O, Riezu-Boj JI, Milagro FI, Goni L, Cuervo M, Martinez JA (2018) Association of the Gly482Ser PPARGC1A gene variant with different cholesterol outcomes in response to two energy-restricted diets in subjects with excessive weight.Nutrition 47:83–89

  • Saremi L, Lotfipanah S, Mohammadi M, Hosseinzadeh H, HosseiniKhah Z, Johari B, Saltanatpour Z (2019) Association between ppargc1a single nucleotide polymorphisms and increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among iranian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Turk J Med Sci 49:1089–1094

  • Shlomai A, Rechtman MM, Burdelova EO, Zilberberg A, Hoffman S, Solar I, Fishman S, Halpern Z, Sklan EH (2012) The metabolic regulator PGC-1alpha links hepatitis C virus infection to hepatic insulin resistance. J Hepatol 57:867–873

  • Soyal S, Krempler F, Oberkofler H, Patsch W (2006) Pgc-1alpha: a potent transcriptional cofactor involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 49:1477–1488

  • Tai CM, Huang CK, Tu HP, Hwang JC, Yeh ML, Huang CF, Huang JF, Dai CY, Chuang WL, Yu ML (2016) Interactions of a PPARGC1A variant and a PNPLA3 variant affect nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in severely obese taiwanese patients. Medicine(Baltimore) 95:e3120

  • Tanaka N, Moriya K, Kiyosawa K, Koike K, Gonzalez FJ, Aoyama T (2008) Pparalpha activation is essential for HCV core proteininduced hepatic steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.J Clin Invest 118:683–694

  • Tazi MA, Abir-Khalil S, Chaouki N, Cherqaoui S, Lahmouz F, Srairi JE, Mahjour J (2003) Prevalence of the main cardiovascular risk factors in Morocco: results of a national survey, 2000. J Hypertens 21:897–903

  • Thomas DL, Astemborski J, Rai RM, Anania FA, Schaeffer M, Galai N, Nolt K, Nelson KE, Strathdee SA, Johnson L, Laeyendecker O, Boitnott J, Wilson LE, Vlahov D (2000) The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: host, viral, and environmental factors. JAMA 284:450–456

  • Villegas R, Williams SM, Gao YT, Long J, Shi J, Cai H, Li H, Chen CC, Tai ES, Consortium A-TD, Hu F, Cai Q, Zheng W, Shu XO (2014) Genetic variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 (PGC1) gene families and type 2 diabetes.Ann Hum Genet 78:23–32

  • Vohl MC, Houde A, Lebel S, Hould FS, Marceau P (2005) Effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 Gly482Ser variant on features of the metabolic syndrome. Mol Genet Metab 86:300–306

  • White DL, Ratziu V, El-Serag HB (2008) Hepatitis C infection and risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hepatol 49:831–844

  • WHO (2017) Guidelines on hepatitis b and c testing, p 204, Licence:CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO, February 2017 edn Yao W, Cai H, Li X, Li T, Hu L, Peng T (2014) Endoplasmic reticulum stress links hepatitis C virus RNA replication to wildtype PGC-1alpha/liver-specific PGC-1alpha upregulation.J Virol 88:8361–8374

  • Yoneda M, Hotta K, Nozaki Y, Endo H, Uchiyama T, Mawatari H, Iida H, Kato S, Hosono K, Fujita K, Yoneda K, Takahashi H, Kirikoshi H, Kobayashi N, Inamori M, Abe Y, Kubota K, Saito S, Maeyama S, Wada K, Nakajima A (2008) Association between PPARGC1A polymorphisms and the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). BMC Gastroenterol 8:27

  • Zhang S, Jiang J, Chen Z, Wang Y, Tang W, Chen Y, Liu L (2018)Relationship of PPARG, PPARGC1A, and PPARGC1B polymorphisms with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma in an Eastern Chinese Han population. Onco Targets Ther 11:4651–4660