Figure 4个  Table 2
    • Gene Knockout bacmid BV production (P value*) Category
      ac12 bAc△12 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac19 bAc△19 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac26 bAc△26 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac29 bAc△29 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac33 bAc△33 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac42 bAc△42 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac44# bAc△44-45 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac45# bAc4△4-45 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac47 bAc△47 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac48 bAc△48 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac52 bAc△52 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac55 bAc△55 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac56 bAc△56 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac57 bAc△57 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac58# bAc△58-59 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac59# bAc△58-59 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac60 bAc△60 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac63 bAc△63 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac72 bAc△72 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac74 bAc△74 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac84 bAc△84 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac85 bAc△85 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac87 bAc△87 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac91 bAc△91 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac97 bAc△97 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac111 bAc△111 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac112# bAc△112-113 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac113# bAc△112-113 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac116# bAc△116-117 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac117# bAc△116-117 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac118 bAc△118 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac121# bAc△120-122-REP120 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac122# bAc△120-122-REP120 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac140 bAc△140 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac149 bAc△149 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac154 bAc△154 P > 0.05 Dispensable
      ac13 bAc△13 0.01 < P < 0.05 Important
      ac51 bAc△51 P < 0.01 Important
      ac120# bAc△120-122 0.01 < P < 0.05 Important
      ac62 bAc△62 NA Essential
      ac82 bAc△82 NA Essential
      ac106/107 bAc△106/107 NA Essential
      *P value was the statistical analysis result of the one-step growth curve of the knockout virus in comparison with that of the control virus AcMNPV-egfp and the statistical analyses were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) using BV titers through 0 h to 96 h p.i.
      #Those genes were analyzed using a jointly-deleted bacmid

      Table 1.  Summary of the impact to BV production by the knockout of the 42 genes.

    • Gene Protein Function Impact on BV production (references)
      ac1 Proteins tyrosine phosphatase (ptp) Regulation of host activities Important Takagi et al. (1998)
      ac6* Lef-2 Replication Essential Wu et al. (2010)
      ac9 pp78/83 Structure Essential Vialard and Richardson (1993)
      ac10 Protein kinase-1 (PK-1) Other Essential Liang et al. (2013)
      ac11 Ac11 Other Essential Tao et al. (2015)
      ac13 Ac13 Other Important This study
      ac14* Lef-1, DNA primase Replication Essential Mikhailov and Rohrmann, (2002)
      ac24 Protein kinase interacting protein (PKIP) Nuleocapsid assembly Essential Fan et al. (1998)
      ac25 Single-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) Replication Essential Vanarsdall et al. (2007a)
      ac34 Ac34 Other Important Cai et al. (2012)
      ac37 Lef-11 Replication Essential Lin and Blissard (2002)
      ac40* P47, RNA polymerase subunit Transcription Essential Carstens et al. (1993)
      ac50* Lef-8, RNA polymerase subunit Transcription Important Gauthier et al. (2012)
      ac51 DnaJ domain protein Other Important This study; Qiu et al. (2019)
      ac53* Ac53 Nucleocapsid assembly Essential Liu et al. (2008)
      ac53a Lef-10 Replication Essential Xu et al. (2016)
      ac54* VP1054 Nucleocapsid assembly Essential Marek et al. (2013)
      ac62* Lef-9, RNA polymerase subunit Transcription Essential This study
      ac65* DNA polymerase Replication Essential Vanarsdall et al. (2005)
      ac66 Ac66 Other Important Ke et al. (2008)
      ac67 Lef-3 Replication Important Nie et al. (2012)
      ac73 Ac73 Other Important Shao et al. (2019)
      ac75 Ac75 Other Essential Shi et al. (2018)
      ac76 Ac76 Other Essential Hu et al. (2010)
      ac77* Very late factor-1 (Vlf-1) Replication Essential Li et al. (2005)
      ac78* Ac78 Structure Essential Tao et al. (2013)
      ac80* GP41, tegument protein Other Essential Li et al. (2018)
      ac81* Ac81 Other Essential Dong et al. (2016)
      ac82 Telokin-like protein (TLP) Other Essential This study
      ac83* VP91, PIF8 Nuleocapsid assembly Essential Zhu et al. (2013)
      ac89* VP39 Structure Essential Thiem and Miller (1989)
      ac90* Lef-4 Transcription Essential Knebel-Mörsdorf et al. (2006)
      ac92 P33, sulfhydryl oxidase Other Essential Wu and Passarelli (2010)
      ac93* Ac93 Transcription Essential Yuan et al. (2011)
      ac94* ODV-E25 Structure Essential Chen et al. (2012)
      ac95* DNA helicase, P143 Replication Essential Gordon and Carstens (1984)
      ac98* 38K Nucleocapsid assembly Essential Wu et al. (2006)
      ac99* Lef-5 Transcription Essential Su et al. (2011)
      ac100* P6.9 Nucleocapsid assembly Essential Wang et al. (2010)
      ac101* BV/ODV-C42 Nucleocapsid assembly Essential Wang et al. (2008)
      ac102 P12 Replication Essential Gandhi et al. (2012)
      ac103* P45 Other Essential Yuan et al. (2008)
      ac104 VP80 Other Essential Marek et al. (2011)
      ac106/ 107 Ac106/107 Other Essential This study
      ac109* Ac109 Nuleocapsid assembly Essential Lin et al. (2009)
      ac120 Ac120 Other Important This study
      ac128 GP64 Structure, entry Essential Monsma et al. (1996)
      ac132 Ac132 Other Essential Yang et al. (2014); Fang et al. (2016)
      ac133* Alkaline nuclease (AN) Transcription Essential Okano et al. (2004)
      ac139 ME53 Replication Essential Xi et al. (2007)
      ac141 exon0 Other Essential Dai et al. (2004)
      ac142* Ac142 Other Essential McCarthy et al. (2008)
      ac143* ODV-E18 Structure Essential McCarthy and Theilmann (2008)
      ac144* Ac144 Other Essential Vanarsdall et al. (2007b)
      ac146 Ac146 Other Essential Dickison et al. (2012)
      ac153 PE38 Replication Important Milks et al. (2003)
      ac147-0 IE-0 Transcription ie0-ie1 is essential Stewart et al. (2005)
      ac147-1 IE-1 Transcription
      *Core gene.

      Table 2.  AcMNPV genes essential or important for infectious BV production