For best viewing of the website please use Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome.
Citation: Wenyi Guan, Wendong Lan, Jing Zhang, Shan Zhao, Junxian Ou, Xiaowei Wu, Yuqian Yan, Jianguo Wu, Qiwei Zhang. COVID-19: Antiviral Agents, Antibody Development and Traditional Chinese Medicine [J].VIROLOGICA SINICA, 2020, 35(6) : 685-698.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00297-0

COVID-19: Antiviral Agents, Antibody Development and Traditional Chinese Medicine

  • Corresponding author: Qiwei Zhang, zhangqw@jnu.edu.cn, ORCID: 0000-0002-2770-111X
  • Received Date: 03 July 2020
    Accepted Date: 31 August 2020
    Published Date: 30 September 2020
    Available online: 01 December 2020
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the first pandemic caused by coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, there is no effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug approved worldwide for treatment of patients with COVID-19. Therapeutic options in response to the COVID-19 outbreak are urgently needed. To facilitate the better and faster development of therapeutic COVID-19 drugs, we present an overview of the global promising therapeutic drugs, including repurposing existing antiviral agents, network-based pharmacology research, antibody development and traditional Chinese medicine. Among all these drugs, we focus on the most promising drugs (such as favipiravir, tocilizumab, SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, Lianhua Qingwen, interferon beta-1a, remdesivir, etc.) that have or will enter the final stage of human testing—phase III–IV clinical trials.

  • 加载中
    1. Agostini ML, Andres EL, Sims AC, Graham RL, Sheahan TP, Lu X, Smith EC, Case JB, Feng JY, Jordan R, Ray AS, Cihlar T, Siegel D, Mackman RL, Clarke MO, Baric RS, Denison MR (2018) Coronavirus susceptibility to the antiviral remdesivir (GS-5734) is mediated by the viral polymerase and the proofreading exoribonuclease. eBio 9: e00221-00218

    2. Boriskin YS, Leneva IA, Pécheur EI, Polyak SJ (2008) Arbidol: a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that blocks viral fusion. Curr Med Chem 15:997–1005
        doi: 10.2174/092986708784049658

    3. Boulos A, Rolain JM, Raoult D (2004) Antibiotic susceptibility of Tropheryma whipplei in MRC5 cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:747–752
        doi: 10.1128/AAC.48.3.747-752.2004

    4. Boulware DR, Pullen MF, Bangdiwala AS, Pastick KA, Lofgren SM, Okafor EC, Skipper CP, Nascene AA, Nicol MR (2020) A randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis for Covid-19. N Engl J Med 383:517–525
        doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2016638

    5. Caskey M, Klein F, Lorenzi JCC, Seaman MS, West AP Jr, Buckley N, Kremer G, Nogueira L, Braunschweig M, Scheid JF, Horwitz JA, Shimeliovich I, Ben-Avraham S, Witmer-Pack M, Platten M, Lehmann C, Burke LA, Hawthorne T, Gorelick RJ, Walker BD, Keler T, Gulick RM, Fätkenheuer G, Schlesinger SJ, Nussenzweig MC (2015) Viraemia suppressed in HIV-1-infected humans by broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117. Nature 522:487–491
        doi: 10.1038/nature14411

    6. Chai X, Hu L, Zhang Y, Han W, Lu Z, Ke A, Zhou J, Shi G, Fang N, Fan J, Cai J, Fan J, Lan F (2020) Specific ACE2 expression in cholangiocytes may cause liver damage after 2019-nCoV infection. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.03.931766:2020.2002.2003.931766

    7. Chan JFW, Kok KH, Zhu Z, Chu H, To KK-W, Yuan S, Yuen KY (2020) Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan. Emerg Microbes Infect 9:221–236
        doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1719902

    8. Chen L, Ge G, Rong Y, Fu W, Zheng M, Zhao Y, Yuan W, Luan X, Zhang L, Zhang H, Chen H (2020) Application and research progress of traditional Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of corona virus disease 2019. Acad J Shanghai Univ Tradit Chin Med 34:1–8 (in Chinese)

    9. Cheng D, Li Y (2020) Clinical effectiveness and case analysis in 54 NCP patients treated with lanhuaqingwen granules. World Chin Med 15:150–154

    10. Cheng Y, Wong R, Soo YO, Wong WS, Lee CK, Ng MH, Chan P, Wong KC, Leung CB, Cheng G (2005) Use of convalescent plasma therapy in SARS patients in Hong Kong. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24:44–46
        doi: 10.1007/s10096-004-1271-9

    11. Cohen J (2020) Can an anti-HIV combination or other existing drugs outwit the new coronavirus? https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/01/can-anti-hiv-combination-or-other-existing-drugs-outwit-new-coronavirus. Accessed 31 March

    12. Ding Y, Zeng L, Li R, Chen Q, Zhou B, Chen Q, Cheng PL, Yutao W, Zheng J, Yang Z, Zhang F (2017) The Chinese prescription lianhuaqingwen capsule exerts anti-influenza activity through the inhibition of viral propagation and impacts immune function. BMC Complement Altern Med 17:130
        doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1585-7

    13. Du YX, Chen XP (2020) Favipiravir: pharmacokinetics and concerns about clinical trials for 2019-nCoV infection. Clin Pharmacol Ther 108:242–247
        doi: 10.1002/cpt.1844

    14. Duan H, Zhai KF, Khan GJ, Zhou J, Cao TY, Wu YQ, Zhou YR, Cao WG, Gao GZ, Shan LL (2019) Revealing the synergistic mechanism of multiple components in compound Fengshiding capsule for rheumatoid arthritis therapeutics by network pharmacology. Curr Mol Med 19:303–314
        doi: 10.2174/1566524019666190405094125

    15. Dyall J, Coleman CM, Hart BJ, Venkataraman T, Holbrook MR, Kindrachuk J, Johnson RF, Olinger GG Jr, Jahrling PB, Laidlaw M, Johansen LM, Lear-Rooney CM, Glass PJ, Hensley LE, Frieman MB (2014) Repurposing of clinically developed drugs for treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:4885–4893
        doi: 10.1128/AAC.03036-14

    16. Fu X, Lin L, Tan X (2020) Clinical study on treatment of cases of COVID-19 with Toujie Quwen granules. Chin J Exp Tradit Med Formulae 26:44–48 (in Chinese)

    17. Fu Y, Cheng Y, Wu Y (2020) Understanding SARS-CoV-2-mediated inflammatory responses: from mechanisms to potential therapeutic tools. Virol Sin 35:266–271
        doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00207-4

    18. Gao K, Nguyen DD, Wang R, Wei G-W (2020) Machine intelligence design of 2019-nCoV drugs. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.30.927889:2020.2001.2030.927889

    19. Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, de Groot RJ, Drosten C, Gulyaeva AA, Haagmans BL, Lauber C, Leontovich AM, Neuman BW, Penzar D, Perlman S, Poon LLM, Samborskiy D, Sidorov IA, Sola I, Ziebuhr J (2020) The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat Microbiol 5:536–544
        doi: 10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z

    20. Guo D (2020) Old weapon for new enemy: drug repurposing for treatment of newly emerging viral diseases. Virol Sin 35:253–255
        doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00204-7

    21. Harrison C (2020) Coronavirus puts drug repurposing on the fast track. Nat Biotechnol 38:379–381
        doi: 10.1038/d41587-020-00003-1

    22. Hoever G, Baltina L, Michaelis M, Kondratenko R, Baltina L, Tolstikov GA, Doerr HW, Cinatl J Jr (2005) Antiviral activity of glycyrrhizic acid derivatives against SARS-coronavirus. J Med Chem 48:1256–1259
        doi: 10.1021/jm0493008

    23. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, Schiergens TS, Herrler G, Wu NH, Nitsche A, Müller MA, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S (2020) SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell 181:271–280.e278
        doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052

    24. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, Spitters C, Ericson K, Wilkerson S, Tural A, Diaz G, Cohn A, Fox L, Patel A, Gerber SI, Kim L, Tong S, Lu X, Lindstrom S, Pallansch MA, Weldon WC, Biggs HM, Uyeki TM, Pillai SK (2020) First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med 382:929–936
        doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191

    25. Hu K, Guan WJ, Bi Y, Zhang W, Li L, Zhang B, Liu Q, Song Y, Li X, Duan Z, Zheng Q, Yang Z, Liang J, Han M, Ruan L, Wu C, Zhang Y, Jia ZH, Zhong NS (2020) Efficacy and safety of Lianhuaqingwen capsules, a repurposed Chinese herb, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial. Phytomedicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153242:153242

    26. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Zhang L, Fan G, Xu J, Gu X, Cheng Z, Yu T, Xia J, Wei Y, Wu W, Xie X, Yin W, Li H, Liu M, Xiao Y, Gao H, Guo L, Xie J, Wang G, Jiang R, Gao Z, Jin Q, Wang J, Cao B (2020) Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 395:497–506
        doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5

    27. Huang M, Li M, Xiao F, Pang P, Liang J, Tang T, Liu S, Chen B, Shu J, You Y, Li Y, Tang M, Zhou J, Jiang G, Xiang J, Hong W, He S, Wang Z, Feng J, Lin C, Ye Y, Wu Z, Li Y, Zhong B, Sun R, Hong Z, Liu J, Chen H, Wang X, Li Z, Pei D, Tian L, Xia J, Jiang S, Zhong N, Shan H (2020) Preliminary evidence from a multicenter prospective observational study of the safety and efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. Natl Sci Rev. https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwaa113

    28. Hubei Daily (2020) Hubei version of "Pneumonia No. 1" and "Powerful Pneumonia No. 1" hospital preparations approved for record. http://news.cnhubei.com/content/2020-02/24/content_12776800.html?spm=zm1033-001.0.0.1.fgF5V7. Accessed 23 Feb 2020 (in Chinese)

    29. Hung IF, To KK, Lee C-K, Lee K-L, Chan K, Yan W-W, Liu R, Watt C-L, Chan W-M, Lai K-Y, Koo C-K, Buckley T, Chow FL, Wong K-K, Chan H-S, Ching C-K, Tang BS, Lau CC, Li IW, Liu SH, Chan KH, Lin CK, Yuen KY (2011) Convalescent plasma treatment reduced mortality in patients with severe pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 52:447–456
        doi: 10.1093/cid/ciq106

    30. Hung IF, Lung KC, Tso EY, Liu R, Chung TW, Chu MY, Ng YY, Lo J, Chan J, Tam AR, Shum HP, Chan V, Wu AK, Sin KM, Leung WS, Law WL, Lung DC, Sin S, Yeung P, Yip CC, Zhang RR, Fung AY, Yan EY, Leung KH, Ip JD, Chu AW, Chan WM, Ng AC, Lee R, Fung K, Yeung A, Wu TC, Chan JW, Yan WW, Chan WM, Chan JF, Lie AK, Tsang OT, Cheng VC, Que TL, Lau CS, Chan KH, To KK, Yuen KY (2020) Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet 395:1695–1704
        doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31042-4

    31. Ke YY, Peng TT, Yeh TK, Huang WZ, Chang SE, Wu SH, Hung HC, Hsu TA, Lee SJ, Song JS, Lin WH, Chiang TJ, Lin JH, Sytwu HK, Chen CT (2020) Artificial intelligence approach fighting COVID-19 with repurposing drugs. Biomed J. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2020.05.001

    32. Khamitov RA, Loginova SI, Shchukina VN, Borisevich SV, Maksimov VA, Shuster AM (2008) Antiviral activity of arbidol and its derivatives against the pathogen of severe acute respiratory syndrome in the cell cultures. Vopr Virusol 53:9–13

    33. Ko WC, Rolain JM, Lee NY, Chen PL, Huang CT, Lee PI, Hsueh PR (2020) Arguments in favour of remdesivir for treating SARS-CoV-2 infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105933:105933

    34. Lai Q, Liang A, He M, Huang X, Wu W (2020) Pharmacological mechanism and network pharmacology research of Huashibaidu formula in treating COVID-19. Nat Prod Res Dev 32:909–919

    35. Li G, De Clercq E (2020) Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Nat Rev Drug Discov 19:149–150
        doi: 10.1038/d41573-020-00016-0

    36. Li D, Lü L, Yang Y (2020) The research status and development trend of global human coronavirus antibody field. China Biotechnol 40:65–70

    37. Li R, Hou Y, Huang J, Pan W, Ma Q, Shi Y, Li C, Zhao J, Jia Z, Jiang H, Zheng K, Huang S, Dai J, Li X, Hou X, Wang L, Zhong N, Yang Z (2020) Lianhuaqingwen exerts anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Pharmacol Res 156:104761
        doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104761

    38. Lin S, Shen R, Guo X (2020) Molecular modeling evaluation of the binding abilities of ritonavir and lopinavir to wuhan pneumonia coronavirus proteases. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.31.929695:2020.2001.2031.929695

    39. Mahase E (2020) Covid-19: low dose steroid cuts death in ventilated patients by one third, trial finds. BMJ 369: m2422

    40. Mehra MR, Desai SS, Ruschitzka F, Patel AN (2020) Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis. Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31180-6

    41. National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (2020a) Transcript of the press conference of the State Council Information Office on March 23, 2020

    42. National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (2020b) Guideline on diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 (Trial 7th edition). http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202003/46c9294a7dfe4cef80dc7f5912eb1989.shtml. Accessed 3 March (in Chinese)

    43. National Institutes of Health (NIH) (2020) NIH clinical trial shows remdesivir accelerates recovery from advanced COVID-19. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-clinical-trial-shows-remdesivir-accelerates-recovery-advanced-covid-19. Accessed 29 Apr 2020

    44. Ou J, Zhou Z, Dai R, Zhang J, Lan W, Zhao S, Wu J, Seto D, Cui L, Zhang G, Zhang Q (2020) Emergence of RBD mutations in circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains enhancing the structural stability and human ACE2 receptor affinity of the spike protein. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.15.991844:2020.2003.2015.991844

    45. Paltrinieri S (2004) Human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and feline coronaviroses. J Feline Med Surg 6:131–132
        doi: 10.1016/j.jfms.2003.11.001

    46. Pruijssers AJ, Denison MR (2019) Nucleoside analogues for the treatment of coronavirus infections. Curr Opin Virol 35:57–62
        doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2019.04.002

    47. Qiu X, Wong G, Audet J, Bello A, Fernando L, Alimonti JB, Fausther-Bovendo H, Wei H, Aviles J, Hiatt E, Johnson A, Morton J, Swope K, Bohorov O, Bohorova N, Goodman C, Kim D, Pauly MH, Velasco J, Pettitt J, Olinger GG, Whaley K, Xu B, Strong JE, Zeitlin L, Kobinger GP (2014) Reversion of advanced Ebola virus disease in nonhuman primates with ZMapp. Nature 514:47–53
        doi: 10.1038/nature13777

    48. Qiu T, Mao T, Wang Y, Zhou M, Qiu J, Wang J, Xu J, Cao Z (2020) Identification of potential cross-protective epitope between a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome virus. J Genet Genomics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2020.01.003

    49. Rameez Jabeer K, Rajat KJ, Gizachew Muluneh A, Monika J, Ekampreet S, Amita P, Rashmi Prabha S, Jayaraman M, Amit Kumar S (2020) Targeting novel coronavirus 2019: a systematic drug repurposing approach to identify promising inhibitors against 3C-like proteinase and 2'-o-ribose methyltransferase. ChemRxiv 1: 1. https://doi.org/10.26434/chemrxiv.11888730.v1

    50. Raoult D, Drancourt M, Vestris G (1990) Bactericidal effect of doxycycline associated with lysosomotropic agents on Coxiella burnetii in P388D1 cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34:1512–1514
        doi: 10.1128/AAC.34.8.1512

    51. Raoult D, Houpikian P, Tissot Dupont H, Riss JM, Arditi-Djiane J, Brouqui P (1999) Treatment of Q fever endocarditis: comparison of 2 regimens containing doxycycline and ofloxacin or hydroxychloroquine. Arch Intern Med 159:167–173
        doi: 10.1001/archinte.159.2.167

    52. Redeploying plant defences (2020). Nat Plants 6: 177

    53. Ren JL, Zhang AH, Wang XJ (2020) Traditional Chinese medicine for COVID-19 treatment. Pharmacol Res 155:104743
        doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104743

    54. Riccardi N, Giacomelli A, Canetti D, Comelli A (2020) Clofazimine: an old drug for never-ending diseases. Future Microbiol 15:557–566
        doi: 10.2217/fmb-2019-0231

    55. Rimanshee A, Amit D, Vishal P, Mukesh K (2020) Potential inhibitors against papain-like protease of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from FDA approved drugs. ChemRxiv. https://doi.org/10.26434/chemrxiv.11860011.v2

    56. Rolain JM, Colson P, Raoult D (2007) Recycling of chloroquine and its hydroxyl analogue to face bacterial, fungal and viral infections in the 21st century. Int J Antimicrob Agents 30:297–308
        doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.05.015

    57. Sang P, Tian S, Meng Z, Yang L (2020) Insight derived from molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations into the binding interactions between HIV-1 protease inhibitors and SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. ChemRxiv. https://doi.org/10.26434/chemrxiv.11932995.v1

    58. Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, Majori G, Cauda R (2003) Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases? Lancet Infect Dis 3:722–727
        doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00806-5

    59. Savarino A, Di Trani L, Donatelli I, Cauda R, Cassone A (2006) New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine. Lancet Infect Dis 6:67–69
        doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70361-9

    60. Shannon A, Selisko B, Le N, Huchting J, Touret F, Piorkowski G, Fattorini V, Ferron F, Decroly E, Meier C, Coutard B, Peersen O, Canard B (2020) Favipiravir strikes the SARS-CoV-2 at its Achilles heel, the RNA polymerase. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.15.098731

    61. Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Leist SR, Schäfer A, Won J, Brown AJ, Montgomery SA, Hogg A, Babusis D, Clarke MO, Spahn JE, Bauer L, Sellers S, Porter D, Feng JY, Cihlar T, Jordan R, Denison MR, Baric RS (2020) Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nat Commun 11:222–222
        doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13940-6

    62. Shi R, Shan C, Duan X, Chen Z, Liu P, Song J, Song T, Bi X, Han C, Wu L, Gao G, Hu X, Zhang Y, Tong Z, Huang W, Liu WJ, Wu G, Zhang B, Wang L, Qi J, Feng H, Wang F-s, Wang Q, Gao GF, Yuan Z, Yan J (2020) A human neutralizing antibody targets the receptor binding site of SARS-CoV-2. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2381-y

    63. Shu T, Huang M, Wu D, Ren Y, Zhang X, Han Y, Mu J, Wang R, Qiu Y, Zhang DY, Zhou X (2020) SARS-Coronavirus-2 Nsp13 possesses NTPase and RNA helicase activities that can be inhibited by bismuth salts. Virol Sin 35:321–329
        doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00242-1

    64. Smith M, Smith JC (2020) Repurposing therapeutics for COVID-19: Supercomputer-based docking to the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein and viral spike protein-human ACE2 interface. ChemRxiv. https://doi.org/10.26434/chemrxiv.11871402.v4

    65. State Council Information Office of the Peolple's Republic of China (2020) The 25th press conference of Guangdong Provincial Government Information Office for epidemic prevention and control. http://www.scio.gov.cn/xwFbh/gssxwfbh/xwfbh/guangdong/Document/1676688/1676688.htm. Accessed 29 Feb 2020 (in Chinese)

    66. Tchesnokov EP, Feng JY, Porter DP, Götte M (2019) Mechanism of inhibition of Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase by remdesivir. Viruses 11:326
        doi: 10.3390/v11040326

    67. Tian X, Li C, Huang A, Xia S, Lu S, Shi Z, Lu L, Jiang S, Yang Z, Wu Y, Ying T (2020) Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclonal antibody. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.28.923011:2020.2001.2028.923011

    68. Uno Y (2020) Camostat mesilate therapy for COVID-19. Intern Emerg Med. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02345-9:1-2

    69. Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, Erickson BR, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Seidah NG, Nichol ST (2005) Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virol J 2:69–69
        doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-2-69

    70. Walls AC, Park Y-J, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D (2020) Structure, function, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Cell. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.058

    71. Wang C, Li W (2020) A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nat Commun 11:2251
        doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16256-y

    72. Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, Shi Z, Hu Z, Zhong W, Xiao G (2020) Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res 30:269–271
        doi: 10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0

    73. Wang YF, Qiu M, Pei H, Yan E, Zhang Q, Liu S, Zou H, Xiong L, Ye G, Wen T (2020) Analysis on the prescription and medication Law of differential treatment of COVID-19 with traditional Chinese Medicine. World Chin Med. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1673-7202.2020.03.008(in Chinese)

    74. Wang YM, Zhang D, Du G, Du R, Zhao J, Jin Y, Fu S, Gao L, Cheng Z, Lu Q, Hu Y, Luo G, Wang K, Lu Y, Li H, Wang S, Ruan S, Yang C, Mei C, Wang Y, Ding D, Wu F, Tang X, Ye X, Ye Y, Liu B, Yang J, Yin W, Wang A, Fan G, Zhou F, Liu Z, Gu X, Xu J, Shang L, Zhang Y, Cao L, Guo T, Wan Y, Qin H, Jiang Y, Jaki T, Hayden FG, Horby PW, Cao B, Wang C (2020) Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9

    75. Warren TK, Jordan R, Lo MK, Ray AS, Mackman RL, Soloveva V, Siegel D, Perron M, Bannister R, Hui HC, Larson N, Strickley R, Wells J, Stuthman KS, Van Tongeren SA, Garza NL, Donnelly G, Shurtleff AC, Retterer CJ, Gharaibeh D, Zamani R, Kenny T, Eaton BP, Grimes E, Welch LS, Gomba L, Wilhelmsen CL, Nichols DK, Nuss JE, Nagle ER, Kugelman JR, Palacios G, Doerffler E, Neville S, Carra E, Clarke MO, Zhang L, Lew W, Ross B, Wang Q, Chun K, Wolfe L, Babusis D, Park Y, Stray KM, Trancheva I, Feng JY, Barauskas O, Xu Y, Wong P, Braun MR, Flint M, McMullan LK, Chen SS, Fearns R, Swaminathan S, Mayers DL, Spiropoulou CF, Lee WA, Nichol ST, Cihlar T, Bavari S (2016) Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys. Nature 531:381–385
        doi: 10.1038/nature17180

    76. White NJ, Pukrittayakamee S, Hien TT, Faiz MA, Mokuolu OA, Dondorp AM (2014) Malaria. Lancet 383:723–735
        doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60024-0

    77. World Health Organization (WHO) (2020) Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports. Accessed 4 Sept 2020

    78. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, Xia J, Zhou X, Xu S, Huang H, Zhang L, Zhou X, Du C, Zhang Y, Song J, Wang S, Chao Y, Yang Z, Xu J, Zhou X, Chen D, Xiong W, Xu L, Zhou F, Jiang J, Bai C, Zheng J, Song Y (2020) Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med 180:1–11
        doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.4346

    79. Xiao Z, Liu C, Lu S, Cai J, Xu F (2020) The mechanism study on Chaihudaxiong mixture in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 with network pharmacology approach. J Pharm Pract 38:289–295 (in Chinese)

    80. Xu X, Han M (2020) Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 117:10970–10975
        doi: 10.1073/pnas.2005615117

    81. Yang R, Liu H, Bai C, Wang Y, Zhang X, Guo R, Wu S, Wang J, Leung E, Chang H, Li P, Liu T, Wang Y (2020) Chemical composition and pharmacological mechanism of Qingfei Paidu Decoction and Ma Xing Shi Gan Decoction against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): in silico and experimental study. Pharmacol Res 157:104820
        doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104820

    82. Yu JW, Wang L, Bao LD (2020) Exploring the active compounds of traditional mongolian medicine in intervention of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) based on molecular docking method. J Funct Foods 71:104016
        doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2020.104016

    83. Zhang C, Chen SB, Jie Zhang, Guo Y (2020) Analysis of chemical drugs applied for clinical trial for the treatment of COVID-19. Acta Pharm Sin 55:355–365

    84. Zhang J, Ma X, Yu F, Liu J, Zou F, Pan T, Zhang H (2020) Teicoplanin potently blocks the cell entry of 2019-nCoV. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.05.935387:2020.2002.2005.935387

    85. Zhao J, Tian S, Yang J, Liu J, Zhang W (2020) Investigating the mechanism of Qing-Fei-Pai-Du-Tang for the treatment of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia by networkpharmacology. Chin Tradit Herbal Drugs 51:829–835

    86. Zhou B, Zhong N, Guan Y (2007) Treatment with convalescent plasma for influenza A (H5N1) infection. N Engl J Med 357:1450–1451
        doi: 10.1056/NEJMc070359

    87. Zhou N, Pan T, Zhang J, Li Q, Zhang X, Bai C, Huang F, Peng T, Zhang J, Liu C, Tao L, Zhang H (2016) Glycopeptide antibiotics potently inhibit cathepsin L in the late endosome/lysosome and block the entry of Ebola Virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV). J Biol Chem 291:9218–9232
        doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.716100

    88. Zhou P, Yang X, Wang X, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, Si H, Zhu Y, Li B, Huang C, Chen H, Chen J, Luo Y, Guo H, Jiang R, Liu M, Chen Y, Shen X, Wang X, Zheng X, Zhao K, Chen Q, Deng F, Liu L, Yan B, Zhan F, Wang Y, Xiao G, Shi Z (2020) A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 579:270–273
        doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7

    89. Zhou S, Li W, Ai Z, Wang L, Ba Y (2020) Investigating mechanism of Qingfei Dayuan Granules for treatment of COVID-19 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. Chin Tradit Herbal Drugs 51:1804–1813

    90. Zhou Y, Hou Y, Shen J, Huang Y, Martin W (2020) Network-based drug repurposing for novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2. Cell Discov 6: 14

    91. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, Zhao X, Huang B, Shi W, Lu R, Niu P, Zhan F, Ma X, Wang D, Xu W, Wu G, Gao GF, Tan W (2020) A Novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 382:727–733
        doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

    92. Zumla A, Chan JF, Azhar EI, Hui DS, Yuen KY (2016) Coronaviruses—drug discovery and therapeutic options. Nat Rev Drug Discov 15:327–347
        doi: 10.1038/nrd.2015.37

  • 加载中

Tables(1)

Article Metrics

Article views(6051) PDF downloads(25) Cited by()

Related
Proportional views
    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    COVID-19: Antiviral Agents, Antibody Development and Traditional Chinese Medicine

      Corresponding author: Qiwei Zhang, zhangqw@jnu.edu.cn
    • 1. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
    • 2. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong, China

    Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the first pandemic caused by coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, there is no effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug approved worldwide for treatment of patients with COVID-19. Therapeutic options in response to the COVID-19 outbreak are urgently needed. To facilitate the better and faster development of therapeutic COVID-19 drugs, we present an overview of the global promising therapeutic drugs, including repurposing existing antiviral agents, network-based pharmacology research, antibody development and traditional Chinese medicine. Among all these drugs, we focus on the most promising drugs (such as favipiravir, tocilizumab, SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, Lianhua Qingwen, interferon beta-1a, remdesivir, etc.) that have or will enter the final stage of human testing—phase III–IV clinical trials.