Citation: Yuling Zhang, Leling Xu, Zhe Zhang, Xin Su, Zhiyun Wang, Tao Wang. Enterovirus D68 infection upregulates SOCS3 expression to inhibit JAK-STAT3 signaling and antagonize the innate interferon response of the host .VIROLOGICA SINICA, 2023, 38(5) : 755-766.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virs.2023.08.007

Enterovirus D68 infection upregulates SOCS3 expression to inhibit JAK-STAT3 signaling and antagonize the innate interferon response of the host

  • Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) can cause respiratory diseases and acute flaccid paralysis, posing a great threat to public health. Interferons are cytokines secreted by host cells that have broad-spectrum antiviral effects, inducing the expression of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). EV-D68 activates ISG expression early in infection, but at a later stage, the virus suppresses ISG expression, a strategy evolved by EV-D68 to antagonize interferons. Here, we explore a host protein, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), is upregulated during EV-D68 infection and antagonizes the antiviral effects of type I interferon. We subsequently demonstrate that the structural protein of EV-D68 upregulated the expression of RFX7, a transcriptional regulator of SOCS3, leading to the upregulation of SOCS3 expression. Further exploration revealed that SOCS3 plays its role by inhibiting the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The expression of SOCS3 inhibited the expression of ISG, thereby inhibiting the antiviral effect of type I interferon and promoting EV-D68 transcription, protein production, and viral titer. Notably, a truncated SOCS3, generated by deleting the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) domain, failed to promote replication and translation of EV-D68. Based on the above studies, we designed a short peptide named SOCS3 inhibitor, which can specifically bind and inhibit the KIR structural domain of SOCS3, significantly reducing the RNA and protein levels of EV-D68. In summary, our results demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EV-D68 inhibits ISG transcription and antagonizes the antiviral responses of host type I interferon.

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    Enterovirus D68 infection upregulates SOCS3 expression to inhibit JAK-STAT3 signaling and antagonize the innate interferon response of the host

      Corresponding author: Zhiyun Wang, zhiyun_wang@tju.edu.cn
      Corresponding author: Tao Wang, wangtaobio@tju.edu.cn
    • a. School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China;
    • b. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China;
    • c. Institute of Tianjin Key Laboratory of Function and Application of Biological Macromolecular Structures, Tianjin, 300072, China

    Abstract: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) can cause respiratory diseases and acute flaccid paralysis, posing a great threat to public health. Interferons are cytokines secreted by host cells that have broad-spectrum antiviral effects, inducing the expression of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). EV-D68 activates ISG expression early in infection, but at a later stage, the virus suppresses ISG expression, a strategy evolved by EV-D68 to antagonize interferons. Here, we explore a host protein, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), is upregulated during EV-D68 infection and antagonizes the antiviral effects of type I interferon. We subsequently demonstrate that the structural protein of EV-D68 upregulated the expression of RFX7, a transcriptional regulator of SOCS3, leading to the upregulation of SOCS3 expression. Further exploration revealed that SOCS3 plays its role by inhibiting the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The expression of SOCS3 inhibited the expression of ISG, thereby inhibiting the antiviral effect of type I interferon and promoting EV-D68 transcription, protein production, and viral titer. Notably, a truncated SOCS3, generated by deleting the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) domain, failed to promote replication and translation of EV-D68. Based on the above studies, we designed a short peptide named SOCS3 inhibitor, which can specifically bind and inhibit the KIR structural domain of SOCS3, significantly reducing the RNA and protein levels of EV-D68. In summary, our results demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EV-D68 inhibits ISG transcription and antagonizes the antiviral responses of host type I interferon.

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