Citation: Xinxin Cui, Jinhuan Ma, Zifeng Pang, Lingzhi Chi, Cuishan Mai, Hanlin Liu, Ming Liao, Hailiang Sun. The evolution, pathogenicity and transmissibility of quadruple reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus in China: A potential threat to public health .VIROLOGICA SINICA, 2024, 39(2) : 205-217.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virs.2024.02.002

The evolution, pathogenicity and transmissibility of quadruple reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus in China: A potential threat to public health

  • Corresponding author: Ming Liao, mliao@scau.edu.cn
    Hailiang Sun, hsun@scau.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 03 October 2023
    Accepted Date: 06 February 2024
    Available online: 10 February 2024
  • Swine are regarded as “intermediate hosts” or “mixing vessels” of influenza viruses, capable of generating strains with pandemic potential. From 2020 to 2021, we conducted surveillance on swine H1N2 influenza (swH1N2) viruses in swine farms located in Guangdong, Yunnan, and Guizhou provinces in southern China, as well as Henan and Shandong provinces in northern China. We systematically analyzed the evolution and pathogenicity of swH1N2 isolates, and characterized their replication and transmission abilities. The isolated viruses are quadruple reassortant H1N2 viruses containing genes from pdm/09 H1N1 (PB2, PB1, PA and NP genes), triple-reassortant swine (NS gene), Eurasian Avian-like (HA and M genes), and recent human H3N2 (NA gene) lineages. The NA, PB2, and NP of SW/188/20 and SW/198/20 show high gene similarities to A/Guangdong/Yue Fang277/2017 (H3N2). The HA gene of swH1N2 exhibits a high evolutionary rate. The five swH1N2 isolates replicate efficiently in human, canine, and swine cells, as well as in the turbinate, trachea, and lungs of mice. A/swine/Shandong/198/2020 strain efficiently replicates in the respiratory tract of pigs and effectively transmitted among them. Collectively, these current swH1N2 viruses possess zoonotic potential, highlighting the need for strengthened surveillance of swH1N2 viruses.

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    The evolution, pathogenicity and transmissibility of quadruple reassortant H1N2 swine influenza virus in China: A potential threat to public health

      Corresponding author: Ming Liao, mliao@scau.edu.cn
      Corresponding author: Hailiang Sun, hsun@scau.edu.cn
    • a. College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China;
    • b. Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Control and Prevention of Guangdong Province, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China;
    • c. National and Regional Joint Engineering Laboratory for Medicament of Zoonosis Prevention and Control, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China;
    • d. Shandong Vocational Animal Science and Veterinary College, Weifang, 261061, China;
    • e. Institute of Animal Health, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China

    Abstract: Swine are regarded as “intermediate hosts” or “mixing vessels” of influenza viruses, capable of generating strains with pandemic potential. From 2020 to 2021, we conducted surveillance on swine H1N2 influenza (swH1N2) viruses in swine farms located in Guangdong, Yunnan, and Guizhou provinces in southern China, as well as Henan and Shandong provinces in northern China. We systematically analyzed the evolution and pathogenicity of swH1N2 isolates, and characterized their replication and transmission abilities. The isolated viruses are quadruple reassortant H1N2 viruses containing genes from pdm/09 H1N1 (PB2, PB1, PA and NP genes), triple-reassortant swine (NS gene), Eurasian Avian-like (HA and M genes), and recent human H3N2 (NA gene) lineages. The NA, PB2, and NP of SW/188/20 and SW/198/20 show high gene similarities to A/Guangdong/Yue Fang277/2017 (H3N2). The HA gene of swH1N2 exhibits a high evolutionary rate. The five swH1N2 isolates replicate efficiently in human, canine, and swine cells, as well as in the turbinate, trachea, and lungs of mice. A/swine/Shandong/198/2020 strain efficiently replicates in the respiratory tract of pigs and effectively transmitted among them. Collectively, these current swH1N2 viruses possess zoonotic potential, highlighting the need for strengthened surveillance of swH1N2 viruses.

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