For best viewing of the website please use Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome.
Citation: Junming Shi, Zhihong Hu, Fei Deng, Shu Shen. Tick-Borne Viruses [J].VIROLOGICA SINICA, 2018, 33(1) : 21-43.

Tick-Borne Viruses

  • Corresponding author: Fei Deng,, ORCID: 0000-0002-5385-083X
    Shu Shen,, ORCID: 0000-0002-0013-5365
  • Received Date: 08 December 2017
    Accepted Date: 30 January 2018
  • Ticks are important vectors for the transmission of pathogens including viruses. The viruses carried by ticks also known as tick-borne viruses (TBVs), contain a large group of viruses with diverse genetic properties and are concluded in two orders, nine families, and at least 12 genera. Some members of the TBVs are notorious agents causing severe diseases with high mortality rates in humans and livestock, while some others may pose risks to public health that are still unclear to us. Herein, we review the current knowledge of TBVs with emphases on the history of virus isolation and identification, tick vectors, and potential pathogenicity to humans and animals, including assigned species as well as the recently discovered and unassigned species. All these will promote our understanding of the diversity of TBVs, and will facilitate the further investigation of TBVs in association with both ticks and vertebrate hosts.

  • 加载中
    1. Abramova LF, Terskikh II, Terskikh IF, Gromashevskii VL, Groma-shevskii VF, L'Vov DK (1987) Comparative characteristics of the pathogenicity of 2 viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae for monkeys. Vopr Virusol 2:357-359 (in Russian)

    2. Afonso CL, Amarasinghe GK, Banyai K, Bao Y, Basler CF, Bavari S, Bejerman N, Blasdell KR, Briand FX, Briese T, Bukreyev A, Calisher CH, Chandran K, Cheng J, Clawson AN, Collins PL, Dietzgen RG, Dolnik O, Domier LL, Durrwald R, Dye JM, Easton AJ, Ebihara H, Farkas SL, Freitas-Astua J, Formenty P, Fouchier RA, Fu Y, Ghedin E, Goodin MM, Hewson R, Horie M, Hyndman TH, Jiang D, Kitajima EW, Kobinger GP, Kondo H, Kurath G, Lamb RA, Lenardon S, Leroy EM, Li CX, Lin XD, Liu L, Longdon B, Marton S, Maisner A, Muhlberger E, Netesov SV, Nowotny N, Patterson JL, Payne SL, Paweska JT, Randall RE, Rima BK, Rota P, Rubbenstroth D, Schwemmle M, Shi M, Smither SJ, Stenglein MD, Stone DM, Takada A, Terregino C, Tesh RB, Tian JH, Tomonaga K, Tordo N, Towner JS, Vasilakis N, Verbeek M, Volchkov VE, Wahl-Jensen V, Walsh JA, Walker PJ, Wang D, Wang LF, Wetzel T, Whitfield AE, Xie JT, Yuen KY, Zhang YZ, Kuhn JH (2016) Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016. Arch Virol 161:2351-2360.
        doi: 10.1007/s00705-016-2880-1

    3. Alberdi MP, Dalby MJ, Rodriguez-Andres J, Fazakerley JK, Kohl A, Bell-Sakyi L (2012) Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 3:137-146.
        doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2012.05.002

    4. Al-Khalifa MS, Diab FM, Khalil GM (2007) Man-threatening viruses isolated from ticks in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 28:1864-1867

    5. Al'khovskii SV, L'Vov DK, Shchelkanov M, Shchetinin AM, Deriabin PG, Samokhvalov EI, Gitel'man AK, Botikov AG (2013) The taxonomy of the Khasan virus (KHAV), a new representative of phlebovirus genera (Bunyaviridae), isolated from the ticks haemaphysalis longicornis (Neumann, 1901) in the Maritime Territory (Russia). Vopr Virusol 58:15-18 (in Russian)

    6. Anderson CR, Casals J (1973) Dhori virus, a new agent isolated from Hyalomma dromedarii in India. Indian J Med Res 61:1416-1420

    7. Anderson EC, Hutchings GH, Mukarati N, Wilkinson PJ (1998) African swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (Potamo-choerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease. Vet Microbiol 62:1-15
        doi: 10.1016/S0378-1135(98)00187-4

    8. Attoui H, Stirling JM, Munderloh UG, Billoir F, Brookes SM, Burroughs JN, de Micco P, Mertens PP, de Lamballerie X (2001) Complete sequence characterization of the genome of the St Croix River virus, a new orbivirus isolated from cells of Ixodes scapularis. J Gen Virol 82:795-804.
        doi: 10.1099/0022-1317-82-4-795

    9. Attoui H, Mohd Jaafar F, de Micco P, de Lamballerie X (2005) Coltiviruses and seadornaviruses in North America, Europe, and Asia. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1673-1679.
        doi: 10.3201/eid1111.050868

    10. Austin FJ (1978) Johnston Atoll virus (Quaranfil group) from Ornithodoros capensis (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) infesting a gannet colony in New Zealand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27:1045-1048
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1978.27.1045

    11. Awate P, Yadav P, Patil D, Shete A, Kumar V, Kore P, Dolare J, Deshpande M, Bagde S, Sapkal G, Gurav Y, Mourya DT (2016) Outbreak of Kyasanur Forest disease (monkey fever) in Sind-hudurg, Maharashtra State, India, 2016. J Infect 72:759-761.
        doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.03.006

    12. Balducci M, Verani P, Lopes MC, Nardi F (1970) Experimental pathogenicity of Bhanja virus for white mice and Macaca mulatta monkeys. Acta Virol 14:237-243

    13. Balducci M, Verani P, Lopes MC, Gregorio B (1973) Isolation in Italy of Bahig and Matruh viruses (Tete group) from migratory birds. BMC Vet Res 11:244

    14. Bao CJ, Guo XL, Qi X, Hu JL, Zhou MH, Varma JK, Cui LB, Yang HT, Jiao YJ, Klena JD, Li LX, Tao WY, Li X, Chen Y, Zhu Z, Xu K, Shen AH, Wu T, Peng HY, Li ZF, Shan J, Shi ZY, Wang H (2011) A family cluster of infections by a newly recognized bunyavirus in eastern China, 2007: further evidence of person-to-person transmission. Clin Infect Dis 53:1208-1214.
        doi: 10.1093/cid/cir732

    15. Baskerville A, Lloyd G (1976) The pathogenesis and pathology of experimental Quaranfil virus infection. Br J Exp Pathol 57:152-156

    16. Beasley DW, Suderman MT, Holbrook MR, Barrett AD (2001) Nucleotide sequencing and serological evidence that the recently recognized deer tick virus is a genotype of Powassan virus. Virus Res 79:81-89
        doi: 10.1016/S0168-1702(01)00330-6

    17. Belaganahalli M, Maan S, Maan N, Brownlie J, Tesh R, Attoui H, Mertens P (2015) Genetic characterization of the tick-borne orbiviruses. Viruses 7:2185
        doi: 10.3390/v7052185

    18. Bell-Sakyi L, Attoui H (2013) Endogenous tick viruses and modu-lation of tick-borne pathogen growth. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 3:25.
        doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2013.00025

    19. Bente DA, Forrester NL, Watts DM, McAuley AJ, Whitehouse CA, Bray M (2013) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical syndrome and genetic diversity. Antiviral Res 100:159-189.
        doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.07.006

    20. Bhatt PN, Kulkarni KG, Boshell J, Rajagopalan PK, Patil AP, Goverdhan MK, Pavri KM (1966) Kaisodi virus, a new agent isolated from Haemaphysalis spinigera in Mysore State, South India. Ⅰ. Isolation of strains. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15:958-960
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1966.15.958

    21. Bosco-Lauth AM, Panella NA, Root JJ, Gidlewski T, Lash RR, Harmon JR, Burkhalter KL, Godsey MS, Savage HM, Nicholson WL, Komar N, Brault A (2015) Serological investigation of heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) exposure in wild and domestic animals adjacent to human case sites in Missouri 2012-2013. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92:1163-1167.
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0702

    22. Brussaard CP, Noordeloos AA, Sandaa RA, Heldal M, Bratbak G (2004) Discovery of a dsRNA virus infecting the marine photosynthetic protist Micromonas pusilla. Virology 319:280-291.
        doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2003.10.033

    23. Burney MI, Ghafoor A, Saleen M, Webb PA, Casals J (1980) Nosocomial outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Crimean Hemorrhagic fever-Congo virus in Pakistan, January 1976. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29:941-947
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1980.29.941

    24. Burt FJ, Spencer DC, Leman PA, Patterson B, Swanepoel R (1996) Investigation of tick-borne viruses as pathogens of humans in South Africa and evidence of Dugbe virus infection in a patient with prolonged thrombocytopenia. Epidemiol Infect 116:353-361
        doi: 10.1017/S0950268800052687

    25. Bussetti AV, Palacios G, Travassos da Rosa A, Savji N, Jain K, Guzman H, Hutchison S, Popov VL, Tesh RB, Lipkin WI (2012) Genomic and antigenic characterization of Jos virus. J Gen Virol 93:293-298.
        doi: 10.1099/vir.0.035121-0

    26. Butenko AM (1996) Arbovirus circulation in the Republic of Guinea. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 2:40-45 (in Russian)

    27. Butenko AM, Chumakov MP, Rubin VN, Stolbov DN (1968) Isolation and investigation of astrakhan strain ("drozdov") of Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus and data on serodiagnosis of this infection. Mater XV Nauch Sess Inst Poliom Virus Encefal (Moskva) 3:88-90

    28. Butenko AM, Gromashevsky VL, L'Vov DK, Popov VF (1981) First isolations of Barur virus (Rhabdoviridae) from ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Africa. J Med Entomol 18:232-234
        doi: 10.1093/jmedent/18.3.232

    29. Butenko AM, Leshchinskaia EV, Semashko IV, Donets MA, Mart'ianova LI (1987) Dhori virus—a causative agent of human disease. 5 Cases of laboratory infection. Vopr Virusol 32(6):724-729 (in Russian)

    30. Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, Filipe AR (1987) Antigenic uniformity of topotype strains of Thogoto virus from Africa, Europe, and Asia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 37:670-673
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1987.37.670

    31. Calisher CH, Schwan TG, Lazuick JS, Eads RB, Francy DB (1988) Isolation of Mono Lake virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, Kemerovo serogroup) from Argas cooleyi (Acari: Argasidae) collected in Colorado. J Med Entomol 25:388-390
        doi: 10.1093/jmedent/25.5.388

    32. Callister DM, Winter AD, Page AP, Maizels RM (2008) Four abundant novel transcript genes from Toxocara canis with unrelated coding sequences share untranslated region tracts implicated in the control of gene expression. Mol Biochem Parasitol 162:60-70.
        doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2008.07.004

    33. Campbell MS, Pletnev AG (2000) Infectious cDNA clones of Langat tick-borne flavivirus that differ from their parent in peripheral neurovirulence. Virology 269:225-237.
        doi: 10.1006/viro.2000.0220

    34. Chambers TJ, Hahn CS, Galler R, Rice CM (1990) Flavivirus genome organization, expression, and replication. Annu Rev Microbiol 44:649-688.
        doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.44.100190.003245

    35. Charrel RN, Zaki AM, Attoui H, Fakeeh M, Billoir F, Yousef AI, de Chesse R, De Micco P, Gould EA, de Lamballerie X (2001) Complete coding sequence of the Alkhurma virus, a tick-borne flavivirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever in humans in Saudi Arabia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:455-461.
        doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2001.5610

    36. Charrel RN, Attoui H, Butenko AM, Clegg JC, Deubel V, Frolova TV, Gould EA, Gritsun TS, Heinz FX, Labuda M, Lashkevich VA, Loktev V, Lundkvist A, Lvov DV, Mandl CW, Niedrig M, Papa A, Petrov VS, Plyusnin A, Randolph S, Suss J, Zlobin VI, de Lamballerie X (2004) Tick-borne virus diseases of human interest in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 10:1040-1055.
        doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2004.01022.x

    37. Chastel C, Launay H, Rogues G, Beaucournu JC (1979) Isolation in France of Soldado virus (arbovirus, Hughes serogroup) from Ornithodoros (A.) maritimus Vermeil and Marguet 1967. C R Seances Acad Sci D 288:559-561

    38. Chastel C, Main AJ, Couatarmanac'h A, Le Lay G, Knudson DL, Quillien MC, Beaucournu JC (1984) Isolation of Eyach virus (Reoviridae, Colorado tick fever group) from Ixodes ricinus and I. ventalloi ticks in France. Arch Virol 82:161-171
        doi: 10.1007/BF01311160

    39. Chastel C, Main AJ, Guiguen C, le Lay G, Quillien MC, Monnat JY, Beaucournu JC (1985) The isolation of Meaban virus, a new Flavivirus from the seabird tick Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) maritimus in France. Arch Virol 83:129-140
        doi: 10.1007/BF01309911

    40. Chastel C, Guiguen C, Le Lay G, Le Goff F (1988) First isolation of Soldado virus in southern France. Acta Virol 32:191

    41. Chastel C, Le Lay G, Le Goff F, Monnat JY (1990) Isolation of Soldado virus from a seabird (Rissa tridactyla L.) in France. Acta Virol 34:109

    42. Chastel C, Main AJ, Bailly-Choumara H, Le Goff F, Le Lay G (1993) Essaouira and Kala iris: two new orbiviruses of the Kemerovo serogroup, Chenuda complex, isolated from Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) maritimus ticks in Morocco. Acta Virol 37:484-492

    43. Clifford CM, Thomas LA, Hughes LE, Kohls GM, Philip CB (1968) Identification and comparison of two viruses isolated from ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17:881-885
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1968.17.881

    44. Clifford CM, Hoogstraal H, Radovsky FJ, Stiller D, Keirans JE (1980) Ornithodoros (alectorobius) amblus (Acarina: Ixodoidea: Argasidae): identity, marine bird and human hosts, virus infections, and distribution in Peru. J Parasitol 66:312-323
        doi: 10.2307/3280825

    45. Coates DM, Sweet C (1990) Studies on the pathogenicity of a nairovirus, Dugbe virus, in normal and immunosuppressed mice. J Gen Virol 71(Pt 2):325-332

    46. Converse JD, Moussa MI (1982) Quaranfil virus from Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodoidea) collected in Kuwait, Iraq and Yemen. J Med Entomol 19:209-210
        doi: 10.1093/jmedent/19.2.209

    47. Converse JD, Moussa MI, Easton ER, Casals J (1981) Punta Salinas virus (Hughes group) from Argas arboreus (Ixodoidea: Argasi-dae) in Tanzania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 75:755-756
        doi: 10.1016/0035-9203(81)90175-9

    48. Cook BW, Nikiforuk AM, Cutts TA, Kobasa D, Court DA, Theriault SS (2016) Development of a subgenomic clone system for Kyasanur Forest disease virus. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 7:1047-1051.
        doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.06.002

    49. Costard S, Mur L, Lubroth J, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Pfeiffer DU (2013) Epidemiology of African swine fever virus. Virus Res 173:191-197.
        doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.030

    50. Da Silva EV, Da Rosa AP, Nunes MR, Diniz JA, Tesh RB, Cruz AC, Vieira CM, Vasconcelos PF (2005) Araguari virus, a new member of the family Orthomyxoviridae: serologic, ultrastruc-tural, and molecular characterization. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:1050-1058

    51. Dandawate CN, Work TH, Webb JK, Shah KV (1969) Isolation of Ganjam virus from a human case of febrile illness: a report of a laboratory infection and serological survey of human sera from three different states of India. Indian J Med Res 57:975-982

    52. Dedkov VG, Markelov ML, Gridneva KA, Bekova MV, Gmyl AP, Kozlovskaya LI, Karganova GG, Romanova L, Pogodina VV, Yakimenko VV, Shipulin GA (2014) Prevalence of Kemerovo virus in ixodid ticks from the Russian Federation. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 5:651-655. 017
        doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.04.017

    53. Detray DE (1957) African swine fever in wart hogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus). J Am Vet Med Assoc 130:537-540

    54. Dietrich M, Gomez-Diaz E, McCoy KD (2011) Worldwide distribu-tion and diversity of seabird ticks: implications for the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:453-470.
        doi: 10.1089/vbz.2010.0009

    55. Dilcher M, Faye O, Faye O, Weber F, Koch A, Sadegh C, Weidmann M, Sall AA (2015) Zahedan rhabdovirus, a novel virus detected in ticks from Iran. Virol J 12:183.
        doi: 10.1186/s12985-015-0410-5

    56. Dodd KA, Bird BH, Khristova ML, Albarino CG, Carroll SA, Comer JA, Erickson BR, Rollin PE, Nichol ST (2011) Ancient ancestry of KFDV and AHFV revealed by complete genome analyses of viruses isolated from ticks and mammalian hosts. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1352.
        doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001352

    57. Doherty PC, Reid HW, Smith W (1971) Louping-ill encephalomyeli-tis in the sheep. Ⅳ. Nature of the perivascular inflammatory reaction. J Comp Pathol 81:545-549
        doi: 10.1016/0021-9975(71)90083-1

    58. Drosten C, Minnak D, Emmerich P, Schmitz H, Reinicke T (2002) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Kosovo. J Clin Microbiol 40:1122-1123
        doi: 10.1128/JCM.40.3.1122-1123.2002

    59. Dumpis U, Crook D, Oksi J (1999) Tick-borne encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 28:882-890.
        doi: 10.1086/515195

    60. Dunster L, Dunster M, Ofula V, Beti D, Kazooba-Voskamp F, Burt F, Swanepoel R, DeCock KM (2002) First documentation of human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 8:1005-1006.
        doi: 10.3201/eid0809.010510

    61. Duygu F, Kaya T, Baysan P (2012) Re-evaluation of 400 Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever cases in an endemic area: is ribavirin treatment suitable? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12:812-816.
        doi: 10.1089/vbz.2011.0694

    62. Ebel GD (2010) Update on Powassan virus: emergence of a North American tick-borne flavivirus. Annu Rev Entomol 55:95-110.
        doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-112408-085446

    63. Ebel GD, Spielman A, Telford SR 3rd (2001) Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus. J Gen Virol 82:1657-1665.
        doi: 10.1099/0022-1317-82-7-1657

    64. Elliott RM (2014) Orthobunyaviruses: recent genetic and structural insights. Nat Rev Microbiol 12:673-685.
        doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3332

    65. Ergonul O (2006) Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Lancet Infect Dis 6:203-214.
        doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70435-2

    66. Fagbami AH, Ikede BO (1978) Pathogenicity and pathology of Jos virus infection in mice and tissue culture. Microbios 21:81-88

    67. Fang LQ, Liu K, Li XL, Liang S, Yang Y, Yao HW, Sun RX, Sun Y, Chen WJ, Zuo SQ, Ma MJ, Li H, Jiang JF, Liu W, Yang XF, Gray GC, Krause PJ, Cao WC (2015) Emerging tick-borne infections in mainland China: an increasing public health threat. Lancet Infect Dis 15:1467-1479.
        doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00177-2

    68. Filipe AR, Casals J (1979) Isolation of Dhori virus from Hyalomma marginatum ticks in Portugal. Intervirology 11:124-127
        doi: 10.1159/000149023

    69. Filipe AR, Alves MJ, Karabatsos N, de Matos AP, Nuncio MS, Bacellar F (1994) Palma virus, a new bunyaviridae isolated from ticks in Portugal. Intervirology 37:348-351
        doi: 10.1159/000150399

    70. Fill MA, Compton ML, McDonald EC, Moncayo AC, Dunn JR, Schaffner W, Bhatnagar J, Zaki SR, Jones TF, Shieh WJ (2017) Novel clinical and pathologic findings in a heartland virus-associated death. Clin Infect Dis 64:510-512.
        doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw766

    71. Florio L, Stewart MO, Mugrage ER (1946) The etiology of colorado tick fever. J Exp Med 83:1-10

    72. Freedman-Faulstich EZ, Fuller FJ (1990) Nucleotide sequence of the tick-borne, orthomyxo-like Dhori/Indian/1313/61 virus envelope gene. Virology 175:10-18
        doi: 10.1016/0042-6822(90)90181-P

    73. Fukuhara T, Tamura T, Ono C, Shiokawa M, Mori H, Uemura K, Yamamoto S, Kurihara T, Okamoto T, Suzuki R, Yoshii K, Kurosu T, Igarashi M, Aoki H, Sakoda Y, Matsuura Y (2017) Host-derived apolipoproteins play comparable roles with viral secretory proteins Erns and NS1 in the infectious particle formation of Flaviviridae. PLoS Pathog 13:e1006475.
        doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006475

    74. Gaidamovich S, Obukhova VR, Sveshnikova NA, Cherednichenko Iu N, Kostiukov MA (1978) Natural foci of viruses borne by Phlebotomus papatasi in the USSR according to a serologic study of the population. Vopr Virusol, pp 556-560. (in Russian)

    75. Gaidamovich S, Sveshnikova NA, Stephenson JR, Lee JM, Mel'nikova EE (1989) Antigenic analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus group using monoclonal antibodies and immunofluorescence. Vopr Virusol 34:684-689 (in Russian)

    76. Galindo I, Alonso C (2017) African swine fever virus: a review. Viruses.
        doi: 10.3390/v9050103

    77. Gao X, Nasci R, Liang G (2010) The neglected arboviral infections in mainland China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e624.
        doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000624

    78. Ghedin E, Rogers MB, Widen SG, Guzman H, Travassos da Rosa AP, Wood TG, Fitch A, Popov V, Holmes EC, Walker PJ, Vasilakis N, Tesh RB (2013) Kolente virus, a rhabdovirus species isolated from ticks and bats in the Republic of Guinea. J Gen Virol 94:2609-2615.
        doi: 10.1099/vir.0.055939-0

    79. Gilbert L (2010) Altitudinal patterns of tick and host abundance: a potential role for climate change in regulating tick-borne diseases? Oecologia 162:217-225.
        doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1430-x

    80. Gong Z, Gu S, Zhang Y, Sun J, Wu X, Ling F, Shi W, Zhang P, Li D, Mao H, Zhang L, Wen D, Zhou B, Zhang H, Huang Y, Zhang R, Jiang J, Lin J, Xia S, Chen E, Chen Z (2015) Probable aerosol transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in southeastern China. Clin Microbiol Infect 21:1115-1120.
        doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.07.024

    81. Gould EF, Chanas AC, Chanas AF, Buckley A, Buckley AF, Varma MG, Varma MG (1983) Immunofluorescence studies on the antigenic interrelationships of the Hughes virus serogroup (genus Nairovirus) and identification of a new strain. J Gen Virol 64:739-742.
        doi: 10.1099/0022-1317-64-3-739

    82. Gould EA, Higgs S, Buckley A, Gritsun TS (2006) Potential arbovirus emergence and implications for the United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis 12:549-555.
        doi: 10.3201/eid1204.051010

    83. Grard G, Moureau G, Charrel RN, Lemasson J-J, Gonzalez J-P, Gallian P, Gritsun TS, Holmes EC, Gould EA, de Lamballerie X (2007) Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxon-omy. Virology 361:80-92. 09.015
        doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2006.09.015

    84. Gritsun TS, Lashkevich VA, Gould EA (2003) Tick-borne encephali-tis. Antiviral Res 57:129-146
        doi: 10.1016/S0166-3542(02)00206-1

    85. Guinat C, Gogin A, Blome S, Keil G, Pollin R, Pfeiffer DU, Dixon L (2016) Transmission routes of African swine fever virus to domestic pigs: current knowledge and future research directions. Vet Rec 178:262-267

    86. Guo Y, Wang W, Ji W, Deng M, Sun Y, Zhou H, Yang C, Deng F, Wang H, Hu Z, Lou Z, Rao Z (2012) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus nucleoprotein reveals endonuclease activity in bunyaviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5046-5051.
        doi: 10.1073/pnas.1200808109

    87. Henderson BE, Tukei PM, McCrae AW, Ssenkubuge Y, Mugo WN (1970) Virus isolations from Ixodid ticks in Uganda. Ⅱ. Kadam virus—a new member of arbovirus group B isolated from Rhipicephalus pravus Dontiz. East Afr Med J 47:273-276

    88. Hill CL, Booth TF, Prasad BV, Grimes JM, Mertens PP, Sutton GC, Stuart DI (1999) The structure of a cypovirus and the functional organization of dsRNA viruses. Nat Struct Biol 6:565-568.
        doi: 10.1038/9347

    89. Hinten SR, Beckett GA, Gensheimer KF, Pritchard E, Courtney TM, Sears SD, Woytowicz JM, Preston DG, Smith RP Jr, Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Holman MS, Lubelczyk CB, Kelso PT, Beelen AP, Stobierski MG, Sotir MJ, Wong S, Ebel G, Kosoy O, Piesman J, Campbell GL, Marfin AA (2008) Increased recog-nition of Powassan encephalitis in the United States, 1999-2005. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:733-740.
        doi: 10.1089/vbz.2008.0022

    90. Hiraki T, Yoshimitsu M, Suzuki T, Goto Y, Higashi M, Yokoyama S, Tabuchi T, Futatsuki T, Nakamura K, Hasegawa H, Saijo M, Kakihana Y, Arima N, Yonezawa S (2014) Two autopsy cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in Japan: a pathognomonic histological feature and unique complication of SFTS. Pathol Int 64:569-575.
        doi: 10.1111/pin.12207

    91. Hoff GL, Iversen JO, Yuill TM, Anslow RO, Jackson JO, Hanson RP (1971) Isolations of Silverwater virus from naturally infected snowshoe hares and Haemaphysalis ticks from Alberta and Wisconsin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20:320-325
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1971.20.320

    92. Holbrook MR (2012) Kyasanur forest disease. Antiviral Res 96:353-362.
        doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.10.005

    93. Holzer B, Bakshi S, Bridgen A, Baron MD (2011) Inhibition of interferon induction and action by the nairovirus Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus. PLoS ONE 6:e28594.
        doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028594

    94. Hoogstraal H (1979) The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa. J Med Entomol 15:307-417
        doi: 10.1093/jmedent/15.4.307

    95. Horak IG, Camicas JL, Keirans JE (2002) The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae (Acari: Ixodida): a world list of valid tick names. Exp Appl Acarol 28:27-54
        doi: 10.1023/A:1025381712339

    96. Huang D, Jiang Y, Liu X, Wang B, Shi J, Su Z, Wang H, Wang T, Tang S, Liu H, Hu Z, Deng F, Shen S (2017) A cluster of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome caused by person-to-person trans-mission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 97:396-402.
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0059

    97. Hubalek Z (1987a) Experimental pathogenicity of Bhanja virus. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 266:284-291

    98. Hubalek Z (1987b) Geographic distribution of Bhanja virus. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 34:77-86

    99. Hubalek Z, Rudolf I (2012) Tick-borne viruses in Europe. Parasitol Res 111:9-36.
        doi: 10.1007/s00436-012-2910-1

    100. Hubalek Z, Mittermayer T, Halouzka J, Cerny V (1988) Isolation of "exotic" Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) from ticks in the temper-ate zone. Arch Virol 101:191-197
        doi: 10.1007/BF01311000

    101. Idede BO (2000) Nairobi sheep disease. Parassitologia 39:95-98

    102. Jeffries CL, Mansfield KL, Phipps LP, Wakeley PR, Mearns R, Schock A, Bell S, Breed AC, Fooks AR, Johnson N (2014) Louping ill virus: an endemic tick-borne disease of Great Britain. J Gen Virol 95:1005-1014.
        doi: 10.1099/vir.0.062356-0

    103. Jeong EJ, Song JY, Lim CS, Lee I, Park MS, Choi MJ, Jeon JH, Kang SH, Jung BK, Yoon JG, Hyun HJ, Noh JY, Cheong HJ, Kim WJ (2016) Viral shedding from diverse body fluids in a patient with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. J Clin Virol 80:33-35.
        doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2016.04.018

    104. Johnson BK, Shockley P, Chanas AC, Squires EJ, Gardner P, Wallace C, Simpson DI, Bowen ET, Platt GS, Way H, Chandler JA, Highton RB, Hill MN (1977) Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes: Kano Plain, Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 71:518-521
        doi: 10.1016/0035-9203(77)90147-X

    105. Johnson BK, Chanas AC, Shockley P, Squires EJ, Varma MG, Leake CJ, Simpson DI (1979) Investigation of the ecology of Soldado virus on Puffin Island, North Wales. Acta Virol 23:428-432

    106. Kaiser MN (1966) Viruses in ticks. Ⅰ. Natural infections of Argas (Persicargas) arboreus by Quaranfil and Nyamanini viruses and absence of infections in A. (p.) persicus in Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15:964-975
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1966.15.964

    107. Karabatsos N (1978) Supplement to International Catalogue of Arboviruses including certain other viruses of vertebrates. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27:372-440
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1978.27.372

    108. Karan LS, Ciccozzi M, Yakimenko VV, Lo Presti A, Cella E, Zehender G, Rezza G, Platonov AE (2014) The deduced evolution history of Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. J Med Virol 86:1181-1187.
        doi: 10.1002/jmv.23856

    109. Kazimirova M, Thangamani S, Bartikova P, Hermance M, Holikova V, Stibraniova I, Nuttall PA (2017) Tick-borne viruses and biological processes at the tick-host-virus interface. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 7:339. 00339
        doi: 10.3389/Fcimb.2017.00339

    110. Kemp GE, Lee VH, Moore DL (1975) Isolation of Nyamanini and Quaranfil viruses from Argas (Persicargas) arboreus ticks in Nigeria. J Med Entomol 12:535-537
        doi: 10.1093/jmedent/12.5.535

    111. Khutoretskaya NV, Aristova VA, Rogovaya SG, Lvov DK, Karimov SK, Skvortsova TM, Kondrashina NG (1985) Experimental study of the reproduction of Karshi virus (Togaviridae, fla-vivirus) in some species of mosquitoes and ticks. Acta Virol 29:231-236

    112. Kim KH, Yi J, Kim G, Choi SJ, Jun KI, Kim NH, Choe PG, Kim NJ, Lee JK, Oh MD (2013) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, South Korea, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1892-1894.
        doi: 10.3201/eid1911.130792

    113. Kimble B, Nieto GR, Perez DR (2010) Characterization of influenza virus sialic acid receptors in minor poultry species. Virol J 7:365.
        doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-365

    114. King AMQ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (2012) In virus taxonomy: ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses.

    115. Kleiboeker SB, Scoles GA, Burrage TG, Sur J (1999) African swine fever virus replication in the midgut epithelium is required for infection of Ornithodoros ticks. J Virol 73:8587-8598

    116. Kohls GM, Sonenshine DE, Clifford CM (1965) The systematics of the subfamily Ornithodorinae (Acarina: Argasidae). Ⅱ. Identifi-cation of the larvae of the Western Hemisphere and descriptions of three new species. Ann Entomol Soc Am 58:331-364
        doi: 10.1093/aesa/58.3.331

    117. Kokernot RH, Calisher CH, Stannard LJ, Hayes J (1969) Arbovirus studies in the Ohio-Mississippi Basin, 1964-1967. Ⅶ. Lone Star virus, a hitherto unknown agent isolated from the tick Amblyomma americanum (Linn). Am J Trop Med Hyg 18:789-795
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1969.18.789

    118. Koksal I, Yilmaz G, Aksoy F, Aydin H, Yavuz I, Iskender S, Akcay K, Erensoy S, Caylan R, Aydin K (2010) The efficacy of ribavirin in the treatment of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey. J Clin Virol 47:65-68.
        doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2009.11.007

    119. Konstantinov OF, Diallo SM, Diallo SF, Inapogi AP, Inapogi AF, Ba A, Ba AF, Kamara SK, Kamara SK (2006) The mammals of Guinea as reservoirs and carriers of arboviruses. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 1:34-39 (in Russian)

    120. Kuhn JH, Bekal S, Caì Y, Clawson AN, Domier LL, Herrel M, Jahrling PB, Kondo H, Lambert KN, Mihindukulasuriya KA, Nowotny N, Radoshitzky SR, Schneider U, Staeheli P, Suzuki N, Tesh RB, Wang D, Wang LF, Dietzgen RG (2013a) Create a family named Nyamiviridae, with 1 genus and 3 species, in the order Mononegavirales. ICTV [International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses] Proposal (Taxoprop) No. 2013. 002a-hV.

    121. Kuhn JH, Bekal S, Cai Y, Clawson AN, Domier LL, Herrel M, Jahrling PB, Kondo H, Lambert KN, Mihindukulasuriya KA, Nowotny N, Radoshitzky SR, Schneider U, Staeheli P, Suzuki N, Tesh RB, Wang D, Wang LF, Dietzgen RG (2013b) Nyamiviri-dae: proposal for a new family in the order Mononegavirales. Arch Virol 158:2209-2226.
        doi: 10.1007/s00705-013-1674-y

    122. Kuno G, Artsob H, Karabatsos N, Tsuchiya KR, Chang GJ (2001) Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65:671-676
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2001.65.671

    123. Kuzmin IV, Novella IS, Dietzgen RG, Padhi A, Rupprecht CE (2009) The rhabdoviruses: biodiversity, phylogenetics, and evolution. Infect Genet Evol 9:541-553. 2009.02.005
        doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2009.02.005

    124. Labuda M, Nuttall PA (2004) Tick-borne viruses. Parasitology 129(Suppl):S221-S245

    125. Lasecka L, Baron MD (2014) The molecular biology of nairoviruses, an emerging group of tick-borne arboviruses. Arch Virol 159:1249-1265.
        doi: 10.1007/s00705-013-1940-z

    126. Li CX, Shi M, Tian JH, Lin XD, Kang YJ, Chen LJ, Qin XC, Xu J, Holmes EC, Zhang YZ (2015) Unprecedented genomic diversity of RNA viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense RNA viruses. Elife.
        doi: 10.7554/eLife.05378

    127. Libikova H, Rehacek J, Gresikova M, Kozuch O, Somogyiova J, Ernek E (1964) Cytopathic Viruses Isolated from Ixodes Ricinus Ticks in Czechoslovakia. Acta Virol 8:96

    128. Libikova H, Tesarova J, Rajcani J (1970) Experimental infection of monkeys with Kemerovo virus. Acta Virol 14:64-69

    129. Libikova H, Heinz F, Ujhazyova D, Stunzner D (1978) Orbiviruses of the Kemerovo complex and neurological diseases. Med Micro-biol Immunol 166:255-263
        doi: 10.1007/BF02121159

    130. Lin T, Cai XZ, Shi MM, Ying ZM, Hu B, Zhou CH, Wang W, Shi ZL, Yan SG (2015) In vitro and in vivo evaluation of vancomycin-loaded PMMA cement in combination with ultra-sound and microbubbles-mediated ultrasound. Biomed Res Int 2015:309739.
        doi: 10.1155/2015/309739

    131. Lindquist L, Vapalahti O (2008) Tick-borne encephalitis. Lancet 371:1861-1871.
        doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60800-4

    132. Liu Y, Li Q, Hu W, Wu J, Wang Y, Mei L, Walker DH, Ren J, Wang Y, Yu XJ (2012) Person-to-person transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12:156-160.
        doi: 10.1089/vbz.2011.0758

    133. Liu Q, He B, Huang SY, Wei F, Zhu XQ (2014) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, an emerging tick-borne zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis 14:763-772.
        doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70718-2

    134. Lu Z, Broker M, Liang G (2008) Tick-borne encephalitis in mainland China. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8:713-720.
        doi: 10.1089/vbz.2008.0028

    135. Luo LM, Zhao L, Wen HL, Zhang ZT, Liu JW, Fang LZ, Xue ZF, Ma DQ, Zhang XS, Ding SJ, Lei XY, Yu XJ (2015) Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks as Reservoir and Vector of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in China. Emerg Infect Dis 21:1770-1776.
        doi: 10.3201/eid2110.150126

    136. Lvov DK, Timopheeva AA, Chervonski VI, Gromashevski VL, Klisenko GA, Gostinshchikova GV, Kostyrko IN (1971) Tuleniy virus. A new Group B arbovirus isolated from Ixodes (Cer-atixodes) putus Pick.-Camb. 1878 collected on Tuleniy Island, Sea of Okhotsk. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20:456-460
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1971.20.456

    137. Lvov DK, Neronov VM, Gromashevsky VL, Skvortsova TM, Berezina LK, Sidorova GA, Zhmaeva ZM, Gofman YA, Klimenko SM, Fomina KB (1976) "Karshi" virus, a new flavivirus (Togaviridae) isolated from Ornithodoros papillipes (Birula, 1895) ticks in Uzbek S.S.R. Arch Virol 50:29-36
        doi: 10.1007/BF01317998

    138. L'Vov DN, Dzharkenov AF, Aristova VA, Kovtunov AI, Groma-shevskii VL, Vyshemirskii OI, Galkina IV, Larichev VF, Butenko AM, L'Vov DK (2002) The isolation of Dhori viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and Crimean-Congo hemor-rhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) from the hare (Lepus europaeus) and its ticks Hyalomma marginatum in the middle zone of the Volga delta, Astrakhan region, 2001. Vopr Virusol 47:32-36 (in Russian)

    139. Main AJ, Downs WG, Shope RE, Wallis RC (1973) Great Island and Bauline: two new Kemerovo group orbiviruses from Ixodes uriae in eastern Canada. J Med Entomol 10:229-235
        doi: 10.1093/jmedent/10.3.229

    140. Major L, Linn ML, Slade RW, Schroder WA, Hyatt AD, Gardner J, Cowley J, Suhrbier A (2009) Ticks associated with macquarie island penguins carry arboviruses from four genera. PLoS ONE 4:e4375.
        doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004375

    141. Marczinke BI, Nichol ST (2002) Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus, an Important Tick-Borne Pathogen of Sheep and Goats in Africa, Is Also Present in Asia. Virology 303:146-151.
        doi: 10.1006/viro.2002.1514

    142. Marjelund S, Tikkakoski TF, Tuisku S, Tuisku SF, Raisanen S, Raisanen S (2004) Magnetic resonance imaging findings and outcome in severe tick-borne encephalitis. Report of four cases and review of the literature. Acta Radiol 45:88-94

    143. Matsuno K, Weisend C, Kajihara M, Matysiak C, Williamson BN, Simuunza M, Mweene AS, Takada A, Tesh RB, Ebihara H (2015) Comprehensive molecular detection of tick-borne phle-boviruses leads to the retrospective identification of taxonomi-cally unassigned bunyaviruses and the discovery of a novel member of the genus phlebovirus. J Virol 89:594-604.
        doi: 10.1128/JVI.02704-14

    144. McLean DM, Larke RP (1963) Powassan and Silverwater viruses: ecology of two Ontario arboviruses. Can Med Assoc J 88:182-185

    145. McMullan LK, Folk SM, Kelly AJ, MacNeil A, Goldsmith CS, Metcalfe MG, Batten BC, Albarino CG, Zaki SR, Rollin PE, Nicholson WL, Nichol ST (2012) A new phlebovirus associated with severe febrile illness in Missouri. N Engl J Med 367:834-841.
        doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1203378

    146. Mihindukulasuriya KA, Nguyen NL, Wu G, Huang HV, da Rosa AP, Popov VL, Tesh RB, Wang D (2009) Nyamanini and midway viruses define a novel taxon of RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. J Virol 83:5109-5116.
        doi: 10.1128/JVI.02667-08

    147. Montgomery E (1917) On a tick-borne gastro-enteritis of sheep and goats occurring in British East Africa. J Comp Pathol Ther 30:28-57.
        doi: 10.1016/S0368-1742(17)80002-3

    148. Montgomery RE (1921) On a form of swine fever occurring in british east Africa (Kenya Colony). J Comp Pathol Ther 34:159-191
        doi: 10.1016/S0368-1742(21)80031-4

    149. Moore DL, Causey OR, Carey DE, Reddy S, Cooke AR, Akinkugbe FM, David-West TS, Kemp GE (1975) Arthropod-borne viral infections of man in Nigeria, 1964-1970. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 69:49-64
        doi: 10.1080/00034983.1975.11686983

    150. Morse MA, Marriott AC, Nuttall PA (1992) The glycoprotein of Thogoto virus (a tick-borne orthomyxo-like virus) is related to the baculovirus glycoprotein GP64. Virology 186:640-646
        doi: 10.1016/0042-6822(92)90030-S

    151. Moss SR, Ayres CM, Nuttall PA (1988) The Great Island subgroup of tick-borne orbiviruses represents a single gene pool. J Gen Virol 69(Pt 11):2721-2727.
        doi: 10.1099/0022-1317-69-11-2721

    152. Muehlenbachs A, Fata CR, Lambert AJ, Paddock CD, Velez JO, Blau DM, Staples JE, Karlekar MB, Bhatnagar J, Nasci RS, Zaki SR (2014) Heartland virus-associated death in tennessee. Clin Infect Dis 59:845-850.
        doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu434

    153. Musso M, Galati V, Stella MC, Capone A (2015) A case of Alkhumra virus infection. J Clin Virol 66:12-14.
        doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.02.019

    154. Nabeth P, Thior M, Faye O, Simon F (2004) Human Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis 10:1881-1882.
        doi: 10.3201/eid1010.040586

    155. Nasar F, Matassov D, Seymour RL, Latham T, Gorchakov RV, Nowak RM, Leal G, Hamm S, Eldridge JH, Tesh RB, Clarke DK, Weaver SC (2017) Recombinant Isfahan virus and vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine vectors provide durable, multivalent, single-dose protection against lethal alphavirus challenge. J Virol 91.pii:e01729-16

    156. Nason EL, Rothagel R, Mukherjee SK, Kar AK, Forzan M, Prasad BV, Roy P (2004) Interactions between the inner and outer capsids of bluetongue virus. J Virol 78:8059-8067.
        doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.15.8059-8067.2004

    157. Nunn MA, Barton TR, Wanless S, Hails RS, Harris MP, Nuttall PA (2006) Tick-borne Great Island Virus: (Ⅰ) Identification of seabird host and evidence for co-feeding and viraemic transmis-sion. Parasitology 132(pt2):233-240

    158. Palacios G, Savji N, Travassos da Rosa A, Guzman H, Yu X, Desai A, Rosen GE, Hutchison S, Lipkin WI, Tesh R (2013) Character-ization of the Uukuniemi virus group (Phlebovirus: Bunyaviri-dae): evidence for seven distinct species. J Virol 87:3187-3195.
        doi: 10.1128/JVI.02719-12

    159. Parola P, Raoult D (2001) Tick-borne bacterial diseases emerging in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 7:80-83
        doi: 10.1046/j.1469-0691.2001.00200.x

    160. Pattnaik P (2006) Kyasanur forest disease: an epidemiological view in India. Rev Med Virol 16:151-165. 495
        doi: 10.1002/rmv.495

    161. Paulsen KM, Pedersen BN, Soleng A, Okbaldet YB, Pettersson JH, Dudman SG, Ottesen P, Vik IS, Vainio K, Andreassen A (2015) Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway. APMIS 123:759-764.
        doi: 10.1111/apm.12412

    162. Pejsak Z, Truszczynski M, Niemczuk K, Kozak E, Markowska-Daniel I (2014) Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in Poland since the detection of the first case. Pol J Vet Sci 17:665-672

    163. Pettersson JH, Golovljova I, Vene S, Jaenson TG (2014) Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden. Parasit Vectors 7:102.
        doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-102

    164. Piantadosi A, Rubin DB, McQuillen DP, Hsu L, Lederer PA, Ashbaugh CD, Duffalo C, Duncan R, Thon J, Bhattacharyya S, Basgoz N, Feske SK, Lyons JL (2016) Emerging cases of powassan virus encephalitis in new england: clinical presenta-tion, imaging, and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 62:707-713.
        doi: 10.1093/cid/civ1005

    165. Presti RM, Zhao G, Beatty WL, Mihindukulasuriya KA, da Rosa AP, Popov VL, Tesh RB, Virgin HW, Wang D (2009) Quaranfil, Johnston Atoll, and Lake Chad viruses are novel members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. J Virol 83:11599-11606.
        doi: 10.1128/JVI.00677-09

    166. Qin XC, Shi M, Tian JH, Lin XD, Gao DY, He JR, Wang JB, Li CX, Kang YJ, Yu B, Zhou DJ, Xu J, Plyusnin A, Holmes EC, Zhang YZ (2014) A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:6744-6749. 1324194111
        doi: 10.1073/pnas.1324194111

    167. Randolph SE, Green RM, Hoodless AN, Peacey MF (2002) An empirical quantitative framework for the seasonal population dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Int J Parasitol 32:979-989
        doi: 10.1016/S0020-7519(02)00030-9

    168. Rao CV, Dandawate CN, Rodrigues JJ, Rao GL, Mandke VB, Ghalsasi GR, Pinto BD (1981) Laboratory infections with Ganjam virus. Indian J Med Res 74:319-324

    169. Rehse-Kupper B, Casals J, Rehse E, Ackermann R (1976) Eyach-an arthropod-borne virus related to Colorado tick fever virus in the Federal Republic of Germany. Acta Virol 20:339-342

    170. Reid HW, Barlow RM, Pow I (1978) Isolation of louping-ill virus from red deer (Cervus elaphus). Vet Rec 102:463-464
        doi: 10.1136/vr.102.21.463

    171. Riemersma KK, Komar N (2015) Heartland virus neutralizing antibodies in vertebrate wildlife, United States, 2009-2014. Emerg Infect Dis 21:1830-1833.
        doi: 10.3201/eid2110.150380

    172. Ritter DG, Calisher CH, Muth DJ, Shope RE, Murphy FA, Whitfield SG (1978) New Minto virus: a new rhabdovirus from ticks in Alaska. Can J Microbiol 24:422-426
        doi: 10.1139/m78-069

    173. Rodovsky FJ, Stiller D (1967) Descriptive notes on Ornithodoros ticks from gull nests on the Farallon islands and isolation of a variant of Hughes virus. J Parasitol 53:890-892
        doi: 10.2307/3276795

    174. Rogers MB, Cui L, Fitch A, Popov V, Travassos da Rosa AP, Vasilakis N, Tesh RB, Ghedin E (2014) Whole genome analysis of sierra nevada virus, a novel mononegavirus in the family nyamiviridae. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91:159-164.
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0076

    175. Roy P, Noad R (2006) Bluetongue virus assembly and morphogen-esis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 309:87-116

    176. Ruzek D, Yakimenko VV, Karan LS, Tkachev SE (2010) Omsk haemorrhagic fever. Lancet 376:2104-2113.
        doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61120-8

    177. Sadanandane C, Elango A, Marja N, Sasidharan PV, Raju KH, Jambulingam P (2017) An outbreak of Kyasanur forest disease in the Wayanad and Malappuram districts of Kerala, India. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 8:25-30. 09.010
        doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.09.010

    178. Saikku P, Brummer-Korvenkontio M (1973) Arboviruses in Finland. Ⅱ. Isolation and characterization of Uukuniemi virus, a virus associated with ticks and birds. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22:390-399
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1973.22.390

    179. Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Mur L, Martinez-Lopez B (2013) African swine fever (ASF): five years around Europe. Vet Microbiol 165:45-50.
        doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.11.030

    180. Sang R, Onyango C, Gachoya J, Mabinda E, Konongoi S, Ofula V, Dunster L, Okoth F, Coldren R, Tesh R, da Rossa AT, Finkbeiner S, Wang D, Crabtree M, Miller B (2006) Tickborne arbovirus surveillance in market livestock, Nairobi, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 12:1074-1080.
        doi: 10.3201/eid1207.060253

    181. Sather GE, Lewis AL, Jennings W, Bond JO, Hammon WM (1970) Sawgrass virus: a newly described arbovirus in Florida. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19:319-326
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1970.19.319

    182. Savage HM, Godsey MS, Lambert A, Panella NA, Burkhalter KL, Harmon JR, Lash RR, Ashley DC, Nicholson WL (2013) First detection of heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from field collected arthropods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:445-452.
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0209

    183. Scott PR, Sargison ND, Wilson DJ (2007) The potential for improving welfare standards and productivity in United King-dom sheep flocks using veterinary flock health plans. Vet J 173:522-531.
        doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.02.007

    184. Service MW (2001) In the encyclopedia of arthropod transmitted infections. CABI Publising, Wallingford, pp 504-506

    185. Shchetinin AM, Lvov DK, Deriabin PG, Botikov AG, Gitelman AK, Kuhn JH, Alkhovsky SV (2015) Genetic and phylogenetic characterization of tataguine and witwatersrand viruses and other orthobunyaviruses of the anopheles a, capim, guama, koongol, mapputta, tete, and turlock serogroups. Viruses 7:5987-6008.
        doi: 10.3390/v7112918

    186. Shi J, Hu S, Liu X, Yang J, Liu D, Wu L, Wang H, Hu Z, Deng F, Shen S (2017) Migration, recombination, and reassortment are involved in the evolution of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus. Infect Genet Evol 47:109-117.
        doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.11.015

    187. Smith CE (1956) A virus resembling Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus from an Ixodid tick in Malaya. Nature 178:581-582
        doi: 10.1038/178581a0

    188. Smith R, Woodall JP, Whitney E, Deibel R, Gross MA, Smith V, Bast TF (1974) Powassan virus infection. A report of three human cases of encephalitis. Am J Dis Child 127:691-693
        doi: 10.1001/archpedi.1974.02110240077010

    189. Solomon T, Hart IJ, Beeching NJ (2007) Viral encephalitis: a clinician's guide. Practical Neurology 7:288
        doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2007.129098

    190. Sreenivasan MA, Bhat HR, Rajagopalan PK (1986) The epizootics of Kyasanur Forest disease in wild monkeys during 1964-1973. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80:810-814
        doi: 10.1016/0035-9203(86)90390-1

    191. St George TD, Standfast HA, Doherty RL, Carley JG, Fillipich C, Brandsma J (1977) The isolation of Saumarez Reef virus, a new flavivirus, from bird ticks Ornithodoros capensis and Ixodes eudyptidis in Australia. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 55:493-499
        doi: 10.1038/icb.1977.49

    192. St George TD, Doherty RL, Carley JG, Filippich C, Brescia A, Casals J, Kemp DH, Brothers N (1985) The isolation of arboviruses including a new flavivirus and a new Bunyavirus from Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) collected at Mac-quarie Island, Australia, 1975-1979. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34:406-412
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1985.34.406

    193. Stockman S (1918) Louping-ill. J Comp Pathol Ther 31:137-193.
        doi: 10.1016/S0368-1742(18)80019-4

    194. Sun RX, Lai SJ, Yang Y, Li XL, Liu K, Yao HW, Zhou H, Li Y, Wang LP, Mu D, Yin WW, Fang LQ, Yu HJ, Cao WC (2017) Mapping the distribution of tick-borne encephalitis in mainland China. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 8:631-639.
        doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2017.04.009

    195. Suss J (2003) Epidemiology and ecology of TBE relevant to the production of effective vaccines. Vaccine 21:S19-S35
        doi: 10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00812-5

    196. Swei A, Russell BJ, Naccache SN, Kabre B, Veeraraghavan N, Pilgard MA, Johnson BJ, Chiu CY (2013) The genome sequence of Lone Star virus, a highly divergent bunyavirus found in the Amblyomma americanum tick. PLoS ONE 8:e62083.
        doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062083

    197. Takahashi M, Yunker CE, Clifford CM, Nakano W, Fujino N, Tanifuji K, Thomas LA (1982) Isolation and characterization of Midway virus: a new tick-borne virus related to Nyamanini. J Med Virol 10:181-193
        doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1096-9071

    198. Tan DS, Smith CE, McMahon DA, Bowen ET (1967) Lanjan virus, a new agent isolated from Dermacentor auratus in Malaya. Nature 214:1154-1155
        doi: 10.1038/2141154a0

    199. Taylor RM, Hoogstraal H, Hurlbut HS (1966a) Isolation of a virus (Wad Medani) from Rhipicephalus sanguineus collected in Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15:75
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1966.15.75

    200. Taylor RM, Hurlbut HS, Work TH, Kingston JR, Hoogstraal H (1966b) Arboviruses isolated from ARGAS TICKS IN Egypt: Quaranfil, Chenuda, and Nyamanini. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15:76-86
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1966.15.76

    201. Telford SR 3rd, Armstrong PM, Katavolos P, Foppa I, Garcia AS, Wilson ML, Spielman A (1997) A new tick-borne encephalitis-like virus infecting New England deer ticks, Ixodes dammini. Emerg Infect Dis 3:165-170.
        doi: 10.3201/eid0302.970209

    202. Tesh R, Saidi S, Javadian E, Loh P, Nadim A (1977) Isfahan virus, a new vesiculovirus infecting humans, gerbils, and sandflies in Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26:299-306
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1977.26.299

    203. Timoney PJ, Donnelly WJ, Clements LO, Fenlon M (1976) Encephalitis caused by louping ill virus in a group of horses in Ireland. Equine Vet J 8:113-117
        doi: 10.1111/evj.1976.8.issue-3

    204. Tokarz R, Sameroff S, Leon MS, Jain K, Lipkin WI (2014a) Genome characterization of Long Island tick rhabdovirus, a new virus identified in Amblyomma americanum ticks. Virol J. 11:26.
        doi: 10.1186/1743-422x-11-26

    205. Tokarz R, Williams SH, Sameroff S, Sanchez Leon M, Jain K, Lipkin WI (2014b) Virome analysis of Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis ticks reveals novel highly divergent vertebrate and invertebrate viruses. J Virol 88:11480-11492.
        doi: 10.1128/JVI.01858-14

    206. Urbaniak K, Kowalczyk A, Markowska-Daniel I (2014) Influenza A viruses of avian origin circulating in pigs and other mammals. Acta Biochim Pol 61:433-439

    207. Valarcher JF, Hagglund S, Juremalm M, Blomqvist G, Renstrom L, Zohari S, Leijon M, Chirico J (2015) Tick-borne encephalitis. Rev Sci Tech 34:453-466
        doi: 10.20506/rst.issue.34.1.58

    208. Varma MG, Bowen ET, Simpson DI, Casals J (1973) Zirga virus, a new arbovirus isolated from bird-infesting ticks. Nature 244:452
        doi: 10.1038/244452a0

    209. Vinuela E (1985) African swine fever virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 116:151-170

    210. Vorou R, Pierroutsakos IN, Maltezou HC (2007) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:495-500.
        doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e3282a56a0a

    211. Walker PJ, Firth C, Widen SG, Blasdell KR, Guzman H, Wood TG, Paradkar PN, Holmes EC, Tesh RB, Vasilakis N (2015) Evolution of genome size and complexity in the rhabdoviridae. PLoS Pathog 11:e1004664. 1004664
        doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004664

    212. Walker PJ, Widen SG, Wood TG, Guzman H, Tesh RB, Vasilakis N (2016) A global genomic characterization of nairoviruses identifies nine discrete genogroups with distinctive structural characteristics and host-vector associations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 94:1107-1122.
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0917

    213. Wang J, Zhang H, Fu S, Wang H, Ni D, Nasci R, Tang Q, Liang G (2009) Isolation of kyasanur forest disease virus from febrile patient, yunnan, china. Emerg Infect Dis 15:326-328
        doi: 10.3201/eid1502.080979

    214. Wang J, Selleck P, Yu M, Ha W, Rootes C, Gales R, Wise T, Crameri S, Chen H, Broz I, Hyatt A, Woods R, Meehan B, McCullough S, Wang LF (2014) Novel phlebovirus with zoonotic potential isolated from ticks, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 20:1040-1043.
        doi: 10.3201/eid2006.140003

    215. Watson GE, Shope RE, Kaiser MN (1972) An ectoparasite and virus survey of migratory birds in the eastern Mediterranean. In: Cherepanov AI (ed) Transcontinental connections of migratory birds and their role in the distribution of arboviruses. Nauka, Novosibirsk, pp 176-180

    216. Weaver SC, Barrett AD (2004) Transmission cycles, host range, evolution and emergence of arboviral disease. Nat Rev Micro-biol 2:789-801.
        doi: 10.1038/nrmicro1006

    217. Westover JB, Rigas JD, Van Wettere AJ, Li R, Hickerson BT, Jung KH, Miao J, Reynolds ES, Conrad BL, Nielson S, Furuta Y, Thangamani S, Wang Z, Gowen BB (2017) Heartland virus infection in hamsters deficient in type Ⅰ interferon signaling: protracted disease course ameliorated by favipiravir. Virology 511:175-183.
        doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2017.08.004

    218. Whitehouse CA (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Antiviral Res 64:145-160.
        doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2004.08.001

    219. Wilks CR, House JA (1986) Susceptibility of various animals to the vesiculoviruses Isfahan and Chandipura. J Hyg (Lond) 97:359-368
        doi: 10.1017/S002217240006544X

    220. Williams H, Thorburn H (1962) Serum antibodies to louping-ill virus. Scott Med J 7:353-355.
        doi: 10.1177/003693306200700803

    221. Williams RE, Casals J, Moussa MI, Hoogstraal H (1972) Royal farm virus: a new tickborne group B agent related to the RSSE complex. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:582-586
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.1972.21.582

    222. Work TH, Trapido H, Murthy DP, Rao RL, Bhatt PN, Kulkarni KG (1957) Kyasanur forest disease. Ⅲ. A preliminary report on the nature of the infection and clinical manifestations in human beings. Indian J Med Sci 11:619-645

    223. Wozniakowski G, Kozak E, Kowalczyk A, Lyjak M, Pomorska-Mol M, Niemczuk K, Pejsak Z (2016) Current status of African swine fever virus in a population of wild boar in eastern Poland (2014-2015). Arch Virol 161:189-195.
        doi: 10.1007/s00705-015-2650-5

    224. Yoo JR, Heo ST, Park D, Kim H, Fukuma A, Fukushi S, Shimojima M, Lee KH (2016) Family cluster analysis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95:1351-1357.
        doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0527

    225. Yoshikawa T, Shimojima M, Fukushi S, Tani H, Fukuma A, Taniguchi S, Singh H, Suda Y, Shirabe K, Toda S, Shimazu Y, Nomachi T, Gokuden M, Morimitsu T, Ando K, Yoshikawa A, Kan M, Uramoto M, Osako H, Kida K, Takimoto H, Kitamoto H, Terasoma F, Honda A, Maeda K, Takahashi T, Yamagishi T, Oishi K, Morikawa S, Saijo M (2015) Phyloge-netic and geographic relationships of severe fever with throm-bocytopenia syndrome virus in China, South Korea, and Japan. J Infect Dis 212:889-898
        doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv144

    226. Yu XJ, Liang MF, Zhang SY, Liu Y, Li JD, Sun YL, Zhang L, Zhang QF, Popov VL, Li C, Qu J, Li Q, Zhang YP, Hai R, Wu W, Wang Q, Zhan FX, Wang XJ, Kan B, Wang SW, Wan KL, Jing HQ, Lu JX, Yin WW, Zhou H, Guan XH, Liu JF, Bi ZQ, Liu GH, Ren J, Wang H, Zhao Z, Song JD, He JR, Wan T, Zhang JS, Fu XP, Sun LN, Dong XP, Feng ZJ, Yang WZ, Hong T, Zhang Y, Walker DH, Wang Y, Li DX (2011) Fever with thrombocy-topenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med 364:1523-1532.
        doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1010095

    227. Zakaryan H, Revilla Y (2016) African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research. Vet Microbiol 185:15-19.
        doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.01.016

    228. Zaki AM (1997) Isolation of a flavivirus related to the tick-borne encephalitis complex from human cases in Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91:179-181
        doi: 10.1016/S0035-9203(97)90215-7

    229. Zhan J, Wang Q, Cheng J, Hu B, Li J, Zhan F, Song Y, Guo D (2017) Current status of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in China. Virol Sin 32:51-62.
        doi: 10.1007/s12250-016-3931-1

    230. Zhang GL, Liu R, Sun X, Zheng Y, Liu XM, Zhao Y, Dang RL, Liu SK, Xia J, Zheng Z, Yang YH (2013) Investigation on the endemic foci of new emerged tick-borne encephalitis in Charles Hilary, Xinjiang. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 34:438-442 (in Chinese)

    231. Zhao JW, Wang HY, Wang Y (2012) Regional distribution profiles of tick-borne pathogens in China. Chin J Vector Biol Control 23:445-448 (in Chinese)

    232. Zivcec M, Scholte FE, Spiropoulou CF, Spengler JR, Bergeron E (2016) Molecular insights into Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Viruses 8:106.
        doi: 10.3390/v8040106

    233. Zlobin VI, Pogodina VV, Kahl O (2017) A brief history of the discovery of tick-borne encephalitis virus in the late 1930s (based on reminiscences of members of the expeditions, their colleagues, and relatives). Ticks Tick Borne Dis 8:813-820
        doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2017.05.001

  • 加载中

Figures(1) / Tables(2)

Article Metrics

Article views(8512) PDF downloads(48) Cited by()

Proportional views
    通讯作者: 陈斌,
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Tick-Borne Viruses

      Corresponding author: Fei Deng,
      Corresponding author: Shu Shen,
    • 1. State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China

    Abstract: Ticks are important vectors for the transmission of pathogens including viruses. The viruses carried by ticks also known as tick-borne viruses (TBVs), contain a large group of viruses with diverse genetic properties and are concluded in two orders, nine families, and at least 12 genera. Some members of the TBVs are notorious agents causing severe diseases with high mortality rates in humans and livestock, while some others may pose risks to public health that are still unclear to us. Herein, we review the current knowledge of TBVs with emphases on the history of virus isolation and identification, tick vectors, and potential pathogenicity to humans and animals, including assigned species as well as the recently discovered and unassigned species. All these will promote our understanding of the diversity of TBVs, and will facilitate the further investigation of TBVs in association with both ticks and vertebrate hosts.