Citation: Xue-Feng Wang, Xiangmin Zhang, Weiwei Ma, Jiwei Li, Xiaojun Wang. Host cell restriction factors of equine infectious anemia virus .VIROLOGICA SINICA, 2023, 38(4) : 485-496.

Host cell restriction factors of equine infectious anemia virus

  • Corresponding author: Xiaojun Wang,
  • Received Date: 13 April 2023
    Accepted Date: 03 July 2023
    Available online: 05 July 2023
  • Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a member of the lentivirus genus in the Retroviridae family and is considered an animal model for HIV/AIDS research. An attenuated EIAV vaccine, which was successfully developed in the 1970s by classical serial passage techniques, is the first and only lentivirus vaccine that has been widely used to date. Restriction factors are cellular proteins that provide an early line of defense against viral replication and spread by interfering with various critical steps in the viral replication cycle. However, viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to overcome these host barriers through adaptation. The battle between the viruses and restriction factors is actually a natural part of the viral replication process, which has been well studied in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). EIAV has the simplest genome composition of all lentiviruses, making it an intriguing subject for understanding how the virus employs its limited viral proteins to overcome restriction factors. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the interactions between equine restriction factors and EIAV. The features of equine restriction factors and the mechanisms by which the EIAV counteract the restriction suggest that lentiviruses employ diverse strategies to counteract innate immune restrictions. In addition, we present our insights on whether restriction factors induce alterations in the phenotype of the attenuated EIAV vaccine.

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    Host cell restriction factors of equine infectious anemia virus

      Corresponding author: Xiaojun Wang,
    • State Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069, China

    Abstract: Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a member of the lentivirus genus in the Retroviridae family and is considered an animal model for HIV/AIDS research. An attenuated EIAV vaccine, which was successfully developed in the 1970s by classical serial passage techniques, is the first and only lentivirus vaccine that has been widely used to date. Restriction factors are cellular proteins that provide an early line of defense against viral replication and spread by interfering with various critical steps in the viral replication cycle. However, viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to overcome these host barriers through adaptation. The battle between the viruses and restriction factors is actually a natural part of the viral replication process, which has been well studied in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). EIAV has the simplest genome composition of all lentiviruses, making it an intriguing subject for understanding how the virus employs its limited viral proteins to overcome restriction factors. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the interactions between equine restriction factors and EIAV. The features of equine restriction factors and the mechanisms by which the EIAV counteract the restriction suggest that lentiviruses employ diverse strategies to counteract innate immune restrictions. In addition, we present our insights on whether restriction factors induce alterations in the phenotype of the attenuated EIAV vaccine.

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